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Strain: SHR

Symbol: SHR
Strain: SHR
Full Name: Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat
RGD ID: 61000
Citation ID: RRID:RGD_61000
Ontology ID: RS:0000015
Alleles: Agtr1b;   Ephx2;   Cd36
Type: inbred
Available Source: Not Available
Description: Okamoto 1963 from outbred Wistar Kyoto rats. Bred from a male with mild hypertension, mated with a female with high blood pressure. Brother x sister mating with continued selection for high blood pressure (Okamoto 1969, Okamoto et al 1972). A number of sublines have been developed with a tendency to develop cardiovascular lesions and stroke (see particularly SHRSP) (Nagaoka et al 1976), and hypercholesterolemia (Yamori 1984). For a recent review see Yamori, (1994). However, there is no evidence for substrain differentiation among SHR stocks from the major commercial suppliers in the USA both respect to phenotype and DNA fingerprints (Blizard et al, 1991). Strain WKY, developed from the same base populations is sometimes used as a normotensive control, though its use as such must be questioned as it differs at many genetic marker loci (Festing and Bender 1984, and see also strain WKY). Stelzin et al (1992) found that SHR and WKY shared only 50% of their DNA fingerprint bands, whereas SS and SR shared about 80% of bands. Most authorities suggest that WKY alone is not a good control strain, and that for most comparative studies several normotensive strains should be used. There is an extensive literature on the characteristics of SHR. DeJong (1984) provides a useful comparative review of this and other hypertensive strains, and there are regular symposia on hypertensive rat strains (see J. Hypertension 4(suppl):S1-S541, 1986, and Jpn. Heart J. 28:567-648).
Genetic Markers: c
Coat Color: Albino
Inbred Generations: F70 (NIH 1989)
Last Known Status: Unknown


References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Transcriptional alterations in the left ventricle of three hypertensive rat models. Cerutti C, etal., Physiol Genomics. 2006 Nov 27;27(3):295-308. doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00318.2005. Epub 2006 Aug 1.
2. Inbred Strains Festing, MFW, Inbred Strains, The Laboratory Rat, 1979, Baker HK, Lindsey JR, Weisbroth SH, 55-72, Academic Press
3. Update to previous Strain Data Festing, MFW, Personal Communication Update, Feb-2000
4. Successful isolation of a rat chromosome 1 blood pressure quantitative trait locus in reciprocal congenic strains Frantz SA, etal., Hypertension 1998 Oct;32(4):639-46
5. Oxidative stress in hypertensive,diabetic, and diabetic hypertensive rats. Friedman J, etal., Am J Hypertens 2003 Dec;16(12):1049-52.
6. Contribution of Genetic Factors to Renal Lesions in the Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat. Gigante B, etal., Hypertension 2003 Oct;42(4):702-6. Epub 2003 Jul 21.
7. Absence of Cd36 mutation in the original spontaneously hypertensive rats with insulin resistance. Gotoda T, etal., Nat Genet 1999 Jul;22(3):226-8.
8. WKHA rats with genetic hyperactivity and hyperreactivity to stress: a review. Hendley ED Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2000 Jan;24(1):41-4.
9. Chromosomal mapping of quantitative trait loci that influence renal hemodynamic functions. Iwai N, etal., Circulation 1999 Nov 2;100(18):1923-9.
10. Genetic dissection of autoimmune type I diabetes in the BB rat Jacob HJ, etal., Nat Genet 1992 Sep;2(1):56-60
11. Diabetes and hypertension in rodent models. Kloting I, etal., Ann N Y Acad Sci 1997 Sep 20;827:64-84.
12. Mapping of novel genes predisposing or protecting diabetes development in the BB/OK rat. Kloting I, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1998 Apr 17;245(2):483-6
13. Bioenergetic remodeling of heart during treatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats with enalapril. Leary SC, etal., Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2002 Aug;283(2):H540-8.
14. Expression of Ca(2+) Transport Genes in Platelets and Endothelial Cells in Hypertension. Mountian I I, etal., Hypertension 2001 Jan;37(1):135-141.
15. Molecular identification and functional characterization of rat multidrug and toxin extrusion type transporter 1 as an organic cation/H+ antiporter in the kidney. Ohta KY, etal., Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Nov;34(11):1868-74. Epub 2006 Aug 23.
16. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for blood pressure and cardiac mass in the rat by genome scanning of recombinant inbred strains. Pravenec M, etal., J Clin Invest 1995 Oct;96(4):1973-8
17. RGD Strain RSO annotation pipeline RGD Automated Pipelines
18. Analysis of quantitative trait loci for blood pressure on rat chromosomes 2 and 13. Age-related differences in effect. Samani NJ, etal., Hypertension 1996 Dec;28(6):1118-22
19. A biometrical genome search in rats reveals the multigenic basis of blood pressure variation. Schork NJ, etal., Genome Res 1995 Sep;5(2):164-72
20. New target regions for human hypertension via comparative genomics. Stoll M, etal., Genome Res 2000 Apr;10(4):473-82.
21. Renal function and structure in diabetic, hypertensive, obese ZDFxSHHF-hybrid rats. Tofovic SP, etal., Ren Fail. 2000;22(4):387-406. doi: 10.1081/jdi-100100882.
22. Association of the brain natriuretic peptide gene with blood pressure and heart weight in the rat. Zhang L, etal., Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 1997 Jun;24(6):442-4.


Strain QTL Data
Symbol Name Trait
Bp100 Blood pressure QTL 100 arterial blood pressure trait   (VT:2000000)    
Bp16 Blood pressure QTL 16 arterial blood pressure trait   (VT:2000000)    
Bp18 Blood pressure QTL 18 arterial blood pressure trait   (VT:2000000)    
Bp19 Blood pressure QTL 19 arterial blood pressure trait   (VT:2000000)    
Bp20 Blood pressure QTL 20 arterial blood pressure trait   (VT:2000000)    
Bp21 Blood pressure QTL 21 arterial blood pressure trait   (VT:2000000)    
Bp22 Blood pressure QTL 22 arterial blood pressure trait   (VT:2000000)    
Bp23 Blood pressure QTL 23 arterial blood pressure trait   (VT:2000000)    
Bp31 Blood pressure QTL 31 arterial blood pressure trait   (VT:2000000)    
Bp55 Blood pressure QTL 55 arterial blood pressure trait   (VT:2000000)    
Bp63 Blood pressure QTL 63 arterial blood pressure trait   (VT:2000000)    
BpQTLcluster1 Blood pressure QTL cluster 1 arterial blood pressure trait   (VT:2000000)    
BpQTLcluster10 Blood pressure QTL cluster 10 arterial blood pressure trait   (VT:2000000)    
BpQTLcluster13 Blood pressure QTL cluster 13 arterial blood pressure trait   (VT:2000000)    
BpQTLCluster3 Blood pressure QTL cluster 3 arterial blood pressure trait   (VT:2000000)    
BpQTLcluster4 Blood pressure QTL cluster 4 arterial blood pressure trait   (VT:2000000)    
BpQTLcluster5 Blood pressure QTL cluster 5 arterial blood pressure trait   (VT:2000000)    
BpQTLcluster6 Blood pressure QTL cluster 6 arterial blood pressure trait   (VT:2000000)    
BpQTLcluster9 Blood pressure QTL cluster 9 arterial blood pressure trait   (VT:2000000)    
Rends2 Renal damage susceptibility QTL 2 kidney blood vessel morphology trait   (VT:0000530)    
Rends3 Renal damage susceptibility QTL 3 kidney blood vessel morphology trait   (VT:0000530)    
Rends4 Renal damage susceptibility QTL 4 kidney blood vessel morphology trait   (VT:0000530)    
Rf51 Renal function QTL 51 kidney plasma flow trait   (VT:0005524)    

Additional Information

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
strain_behavior SHR rats are hyperactive and may be a useful model for childhood hyperkinesis and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (Sagvolden et al, 1993). 1004
strain_behavior SHR rats are hyperactive and may be a useful model for childhood hyperkinesis and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (Sagvolden et al, 1993). 70866
strain_behavior SHR rats are hyperactive and may be a useful model for childhood hyperkinesis and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (Sagvolden et al, 1993). 634612
strain_behavior These are more aggressive and exploratory in a novel environment. 70866
strain_behavior Increase in blood pressure, heart rate and peripheral vascular resistance is observed when exposed to air-jet stress. 70866
strain_characteristics basal and stimulated [Ca++] 68726
strain_drgs_chems Activity is decreased by D-amphetamine. 70866
strain_life_disease High blood pressure (2/23), reaching 171_2.0 (SEM) mmHg at 10 weeks of age (Tanase et al 1982). According to Yamori (1984), the rats develop hypertension spontaneously without exception at the age of 7-15 weeks. There is a systolic blood pressure plateau of about 200 mmHg. The genetic basis is polygenic, with at least three major genes involved (Tanase and Suzuki 1971, Yen et al 1974). There is a high incidence of cardiovascular disease (Okamoto et al 1973), but a low incidence of stroke which can be increased to about 30% with chronic stress (Yamori 1984). Alloxan diabetes further increases blood pressure, but the animals respond to anti-hypertensive drugs (Okamoto 1969). Yamori states that SHR rats show a functional increase in peripheral vascular resistance, which mostly depend on neurogenic mechanisms which probably originate in a disorder of central blood pressure regulation. The blood pressure per se and increased neurogenic tone accelerate cardiovascular protein synthesis and induce structural vascular changes which contribute to the maintenance of the hypertension. Studies on cultured vascular smooth muscle suggest a genetic predisposition to hyperplastic growth of these cells and its stimulation by _-adrenergic mechanisms. According to Dietz et al (1984) there is an abnormality of intracellular electrolyte balance with increased intracellular sodium and calcium concentration. Grobecker et al (1975) found that in young SHR rats the plasma levels of both noradrenaline and dopamine-_-hydroxylase were increased over control WKY rats, but total catecholamines were not significantly different. Catecholamine content of the adrenals was reduced. Circulating thyrotrophin levels were markedly elevated over two control strains (Werner et al 1975). There was a reduced I-131 metabolism and increased thyroid weight relative to Wistar controls (Fregley 1975). Reduction of dietary vitamin E prevents the development of hypertension, possibly due to a significant increase in prostaglandin catabolism (Pace-Asciak and Carrara 1979). Caloric restriction lowers blood pressure (Young et al 1978). Environmental and dietary factors can influence the degree of hypertension (Yamori et al 1979, 1986). A high (8%) salt diet increased systolic blood pressure, but not so much as in strain SS/Jr (Adams and Blizard, 1991). A polymorphism in the heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) mapping in the RT1 complex was found to be associated with variation in blood pressure of 15mm Hg among recombinant inbred strains (Hamet et al, 1992). 61077
strain_phys_biochem Strain is significantly more sensitive to the hypotensive effects of GABA than normotensive Sprague-Dawley or WKY rats, with evidence that the effects are mediated by the brain angiotensin system (Roberts et al, 1993). Plasma renin and angiotensin II levels are not elevated (Cambell et al, 1995). Glucose turnover in lean and obese (carrying the fatty gene) SHR rats has been described by Berdanier et al, (1993). There is reduced cancellous bone mass in SHR compared with WKY (Wang et al, 1993). The Y-chromosome of SHR increases blood pressure when backcrossed to strain WKY for 11 generations (Ely et al, 1993). There is a deficit in visual acuity at 40-66 days, prior to the onset of hypertension, and it is particularly marked in the blue spectrum (Rogers et al, 1993). Low 10-week body weight in males (2/23) (Tanase et al 1982). High relative heart weight in 10-week old males (22/23) (Tanase et al 1982). SHR rats express insulin resistance, and are a suitable model for insulin resistance and essential hypertension in non-obese humans (Swislocki and Tsuzuki, 1993). Have fewer glomeruli than WKY rats, but they are of similar size, resulting in a reduced glomerular volume. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the kidney plays an important role in hypertension ( Skov et al, 1994). Foetal but not placental weight is reduced compared with WKY (Johnston, 1995). Genetically resistant to the induction of mammary tumours by dimethylbenz(a)anthracene due to a blockade of tumour promotion (Harris et al, 1994). Roba (1976) concluded that the strain is a suitable model for screening anti-hypertensive drugs. The Committee on the care and use of hypertensive rats (1976) has issued guidelines for the breeding and care of this strain. A congenic strain carrying the corpulent gene (cp), an allele of fatty (fa) has been developed and is described by Michaelis and Hansen (1990). Homozygotes develop both metabolic and histopathologic characteristics associated with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type II) in humans. It is unique among rat strains in that glucose intolerance is expressed in both sexes. A similar strain, in which the fatty (fa) gene has been backcrossed to SRH for five generations has been described by Chanh et al (1988) Homozygous fatty rats were heavier than fa/+ litter mates, with blood pressure elevated above that of SHR animals. Blood glucose content was not different from SHR, but plasma triglycerides were increased by more than 500% from an early age. 61077
strain_phys_biochem cultured cardiac fibroblasts express lower levels of angiotensin II (AII) receptors than WKY cultured cardiac fibroblasts 1358982