This study was designed to detect tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) by Azo-dye staining, calcium by glyoxal bis (2-hydroxyanil) (GBHA) staining, bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN) by immunoperoxidase staining in developing rat molars, and also to discuss the mineralization process during acellular cementogenesis. To restrain a reduction in histochemical and immunohistochemical reactions, fresh-frozen undemineralized sections were prepared. Where the epithelial sheath was intact, TNSALP reaction was observed in the dental follicle, but not in the epithelial sheath. With the onset of dentin mineralization, the BSP- and OPN-immunoreactive, initial cementum layer appeared. At this point, cementoblasts had shown intense TNSALP reaction and GBHA reactive particles (=calcium-GBHA complex) appeared on the root surface. With further development, the reaction of TNSALP and GBHA became weak on the root surface. Previous studies have shown that the initial cementum is fibril-poor and that matrix vesicles and calciferous spherules appear on the root surface only during the initial cementogenesis. The findings mentioned above suggest that: during the initial cementogenesis, cementoblasts release matrix vesicles which result in calciferous spherules, corresponding to the GBHA reactive particles. The calciferous spherules trigger the mineralization of the initial cementum. After principal fiber attachment, mineralization advances along collagen fibrils without matrix vesicles.