Potential contributory role of H-Ras, a small G-protein, in the development of retinopathy in diabetic rats.
Kowluru, RA Kowluru, A Chakrabarti, S Khan, Z
|Kowluru RA, etal., Diabetes 2004 Mar;53(3):775-83.
|PMID:14988264 (View Abstract at PubMed)
Hyperglycemia is thought to be the underlying factor in the development of diabetic retinopathy, but the mechanisms involved remain partially understood. Diabetes increases oxidative stress, and reactive oxygen species affect the interactions between a small-molecular- weight G-protein, H-Ras, and several of its effector proteins. The purpose of this study was to examine the regulatory role of H-Ras in glucose-induced apoptosis of retinal endothelial cells. The expressions of H-Ras and its effector protein (Raf-1) were compared in the retina obtained from diabetic rats (2-8 months' duration) and age-matched normal rats and in retinal endothelial cells exposed to high-glucose medium. The effect of inhibition of H-Ras function on glucose-induced capillary cell death and the potential involvement of oxidative stress in diabetes-induced activation of H-Ras were also determined. The expressions of H-Ras and Raf-1 were increased in the retina in diabetes, and antioxidant therapy prevented diabetes-induced increased protein and mRNA expressions. The inhibitors of Ras farnesylation inhibited glucose-induced nitric oxides and apoptosis in isolated retinal endothelial cells. Thus, the results suggest that functional activation of H-Ras might be one of the signaling steps involved in glucose-induced capillary cell apoptosis and supports the role of H-Ras in the development of retinopathy in diabetes.