PIK3R1 (phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: PIK3R1 (phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1) Homo sapiens
Symbol: PIK3R1
Name: phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1
RGD ID: 731958
HGNC Page HGNC:8979
Description: Enables several functions, including insulin binding activity; phosphotyrosine residue binding activity; and signaling receptor binding activity. Involved in several processes, including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling; positive regulation of RNA metabolic process; and transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway. Located in cytoplasm and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex, class IA. Implicated in several diseases, including SHORT syndrome; agammaglobulinemia 7; astroblastoma; endometrial cancer (multiple); and immunodeficiency 36. Biomarker of arthritis (multiple); astroblastoma; carcinoma (multiple); colorectal cancer; and prostate cancer.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: REVIEWED
Previously known as: AGM7; GRB1; growth factor receptor bound 1; IMD36; p85; p85-ALPHA; p85alpha; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase 85 kDa regulatory subunit alpha; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit alpha; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, regulatory subunit, polypeptide 1; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, regulatory subunit, polypeptide 1 (p85 alpha); phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, regulatory, 1; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-associated p-85 alpha; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit alpha; phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1 (alpha); PI3 kinase-associated p85; PI3-kinase regulatory subunit alpha; PI3-kinase subunit p85-alpha; PI3K regulatory subunit alpha; ptdIns-3-kinase regulatory subunit alpha; ptdIns-3-kinase regulatory subunit p85-alpha
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Allele / Splice: See ClinVar data
Latest Assembly: GRCh38 - Human Genome Assembly GRCh38
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh38568,215,756 - 68,301,821 (+)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p13 Ensembl568,215,740 - 68,301,821 (+)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh37567,511,584 - 67,597,649 (+)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 36567,558,218 - 67,633,405 (+)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 34567,622,250 - 67,633,403NCBI
Celera564,520,829 - 64,597,175 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map5q13.1NCBI
HuRef564,468,818 - 64,555,164 (+)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_1567,511,846 - 67,597,747 (+)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.0569,037,982 - 69,124,117 (+)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate  (ISO)
1-[(4-chlorophenyl)-phenylmethyl]-4-methylpiperazine  (ISO)
17beta-estradiol  (ISO)
17beta-estradiol 3-benzoate  (ISO)
2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl  (ISO)
2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether  (EXP)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
2,4,6-tribromophenol  (EXP)
2,5-hexanedione  (ISO)
2-butoxyethanol  (ISO)
3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl  (ISO)
3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl  (ISO)
3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobisphenol A  (EXP)
3-chloropropane-1,2-diol  (ISO)
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine  (EXP)
3-methyladenine  (EXP)
3-methylcholanthrene  (EXP)
3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione  (ISO)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (ISO)
4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide  (ISO)
4-nitrophenol  (ISO)
4-tert-butylphenol  (EXP)
9-cis-retinoic acid  (ISO)
acetylsalicylic acid  (EXP)
acrylamide  (ISO)
aflatoxin B1  (EXP,ISO)
aldehydo-D-glucose  (EXP)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (EXP,ISO)
ammonium chloride  (ISO)
anthocyanin  (ISO)
antimonite  (EXP)
arecoline  (ISO)
aristolochic acid A  (EXP)
arsane  (EXP)
arsenic atom  (EXP)
arsenite(3-)  (EXP,ISO)
arsenous acid  (EXP,ISO)
atazanavir sulfate  (EXP)
atrazine  (EXP)
benzo[a]pyrene  (EXP,ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide I  (EXP)
bexarotene  (EXP)
bilirubin IXalpha  (EXP)
bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide  (ISO)
bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether  (EXP)
bisphenol F  (ISO)
bromobenzene  (ISO)
cadmium atom  (ISO)
cadmium dichloride  (EXP)
cannabidiol  (EXP)
cantharidin  (EXP)
capsaicin  (ISO)
capsazepine  (ISO)
carbamazepine  (EXP)
carbon nanotube  (ISO)
celastrol  (EXP)
CGP 52608  (EXP)
chenodeoxycholic acid  (EXP)
chlorogenic acid  (ISO)
chromium atom  (ISO)
ciguatoxin CTX1B  (ISO)
cis-caffeic acid  (ISO)
cisplatin  (EXP)
clobetasol  (ISO)
cobalt dichloride  (EXP)
coenzyme Q10  (ISO)
conjugated linoleic acid  (EXP)
copper atom  (EXP,ISO)
copper(0)  (EXP,ISO)
crocidolite asbestos  (ISO)
cyclosporin A  (EXP,ISO)
D-glucose  (EXP)
daunorubicin  (EXP)
deoxycholic acid  (EXP)
desferrioxamine B  (EXP)
dexamethasone  (EXP,ISO)
diallyl trisulfide  (ISO)
diarsenic trioxide  (EXP,ISO)
dibenz[a,h]anthracene  (ISO)
diclofenac  (EXP,ISO)
dioxygen  (EXP,ISO)
dipotassium bis[mu-tartrato(4-)]diantimonate(2-) trihydrate  (EXP)
disodium selenite  (ISO)
diuron  (ISO)
dorsomorphin  (EXP)
doxorubicin  (EXP,ISO)
elemental selenium  (ISO)
emodin  (ISO)
endosulfan  (EXP)
entinostat  (EXP)
ethanol  (ISO)
eugenol  (ISO)
ferulic acid  (ISO)
folic acid  (EXP,ISO)
fonofos  (EXP)
formaldehyde  (EXP)
fructose  (ISO)
furan  (ISO)
Garcinol  (EXP)
gedunin  (EXP)
geldanamycin  (EXP)
geraniol  (ISO)
glucose  (EXP)
glycochenodeoxycholic acid  (EXP)
glycocholic acid  (EXP)
glycodeoxycholic acid  (EXP)
glyphosate  (EXP)
gold atom  (ISO)
gold(0)  (ISO)
hesperidin  (ISO)
HU-308  (ISO)
hydrazines  (ISO)
hydrogen cyanide  (ISO)
hydrogen peroxide  (EXP,ISO)
hydroquinone  (EXP)
indole-3-methanol  (ISO)
indometacin  (EXP)
iron atom  (ISO)
iron(0)  (ISO)
iron(2+) sulfate (anhydrous)  (ISO)
isoprenaline  (ISO)
ivermectin  (EXP)
L-ascorbic acid  (ISO)
lead diacetate  (ISO)
lead(0)  (EXP)
lead(2+)  (EXP)
linsidomine  (ISO)
lipopolysaccharide  (EXP)
LY294002  (EXP,ISO)
maculosin  (ISO)
melatonin  (ISO)
melphalan  (EXP)
mercury atom  (ISO)
mercury(0)  (ISO)
metformin  (ISO)
methamphetamine  (ISO)
methidathion  (ISO)
methotrexate  (ISO)
methoxychlor  (ISO)
methylmercury chloride  (ISO)
mevinphos  (ISO)
mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (EXP)
N-acetyl-L-cysteine  (EXP)
N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine  (ISO)
N-nitrosodiethylamine  (ISO)
naringin  (ISO)
nefazodone  (EXP)
Neferine  (EXP,ISO)
nickel atom  (ISO)
nickel dichloride  (ISO)
Nonylphenol  (ISO)
obeticholic acid  (EXP)
olanzapine  (ISO)
ozone  (EXP,ISO)
paeoniflorin  (ISO)
paracetamol  (EXP,ISO)
paraquat  (ISO)
parathion  (EXP)
perfluorooctane-1-sulfonic acid  (EXP)
phenformin  (ISO)
phenobarbital  (ISO)
pirinixic acid  (EXP,ISO)
procyanidin B1  (EXP)
propiconazole  (ISO)
quercetin  (EXP,ISO)
quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucofuranoside  (EXP)
quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside  (EXP)
quercitrin  (EXP)
reactive oxygen species  (EXP)
resveratrol  (EXP,ISO)
retinyl acetate  (ISO)
rivastigmine  (ISO)
rotenone  (ISO)
ruthenium red  (ISO)
SB 431542  (EXP)
selenium atom  (ISO)
silicon dioxide  (ISO)
silver atom  (ISO)
silver(0)  (ISO)
sirolimus  (EXP)
sodium arsenate  (ISO)
sodium arsenite  (ISO)
sodium fluoride  (ISO)
streptozocin  (ISO)
succimer  (ISO)
tamoxifen  (ISO)
taraxasterol  (EXP)
terbufos  (EXP)
tert-butyl hydroperoxide  (EXP)
testosterone  (EXP,ISO)
thiazolidinediones  (ISO)
thioacetamide  (ISO)
titanium dioxide  (ISO)
trans-caffeic acid  (ISO)
trans-cinnamic acid  (ISO)
tremolite asbestos  (ISO)
trichostatin A  (EXP)
triclosan  (ISO)
triptonide  (ISO)
tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate  (EXP)
tungsten  (ISO)
tunicamycin  (ISO)
uranium atom  (EXP)
urethane  (EXP)
valproic acid  (EXP,ISO)
vinclozolin  (ISO)
vitamin E  (EXP)
wortmannin  (EXP,ISO)
zoledronic acid  (EXP)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
aging  (ISO)
B cell differentiation  (IEA,ISO,NAS)
cellular response to fatty acid  (ISO)
cellular response to insulin stimulus  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
cellular response to UV  (IEA,ISO)
extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors  (IEA,ISO)
glucose metabolic process  (ISO)
growth hormone receptor signaling pathway  (IDA)
immune response  (NAS)
insulin receptor signaling pathway  (IBA,IEA,ISO)
insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway  (IDA,IEA,IPI,ISO)
intracellular glucose homeostasis  (IEA,ISS)
intracellular receptor signaling pathway  (IEA)
intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to DNA damage  (IEA,ISO)
myeloid leukocyte migration  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of apoptotic process  (IEA,IMP,ISO)
negative regulation of blood pressure  (ISO)
negative regulation of cell adhesion  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of cell-cell adhesion  (ISO)
negative regulation of cell-matrix adhesion  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of heart rate  (ISO)
negative regulation of muscle cell apoptotic process  (ISO)
negative regulation of osteoclast differentiation  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of proteolysis  (ISO)
negative regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation  (ISO)
negative regulation of stress fiber assembly  (IEA,ISS)
osteoclast differentiation  (IEA,ISO)
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling  (IDA,IMP)
phosphatidylinositol phosphate biosynthetic process  (IBA,ISS)
phosphorylation  (IEA)
positive regulation of cell migration  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response  (IMP)
positive regulation of filopodium assembly  (IEA,ISS)
positive regulation of focal adhesion disassembly  (IEA,ISS)
positive regulation of gene expression  (ISO)
positive regulation of glucose import  (ISS)
positive regulation of lamellipodium assembly  (IEA,ISS)
positive regulation of leukocyte migration  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of myoblast differentiation  (ISO)
positive regulation of protein import into nucleus  (IDA,IEA)
positive regulation of protein localization to plasma membrane  (ISS)
positive regulation of protein phosphorylation  (ISO)
positive regulation of RNA splicing  (IMP)
positive regulation of synapse assembly  (ISO)
positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II  (IEA,IMP,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production  (IEA,ISO)
protein import into nucleus  (IEA,ISO)
protein phosphorylation  (IEA,ISO)
protein stabilization  (IDA)
protein transport  (IEA)
regulation of DNA-templated transcription  (IEA)
regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway  (IEA,ISO)
regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity  (IBA,ISO,ISS)
regulation of protein localization to plasma membrane  (IEA,ISO)
regulation of stress fiber assembly  (IEA,ISO)
response to amino acid  (ISO)
response to cAMP  (ISO)
response to dexamethasone  (ISO)
response to endoplasmic reticulum stress  (IDA,IEA,ISS)
response to estradiol  (ISO)
response to ethanol  (ISO)
response to fatty acid  (ISO)
response to fructose  (ISO)
response to glucocorticoid  (ISO)
response to growth factor  (ISO)
response to insulin  (ISO)
response to iron(II) ion  (ISO)
response to nutrient  (ISO)
response to progesterone  (ISO)
response to testosterone  (ISO)
response to xenobiotic stimulus  (ISO)
response to yeast  (ISO)
signal transduction  (IEA)
signal transduction  (IEA)
substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading  (ISS)
T cell differentiation  (NAS)
transcription by RNA polymerase II  (IEA,ISO)

Cellular Component

Molecular Pathway Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
acute myeloid leukemia pathway  (IEA)
aldosterone signaling pathway  (IEA)
apoptotic cell death pathway  (IEA)
B cell receptor signaling pathway  (IEA)
ceramide signaling pathway  (IEA)
Chagas disease pathway  (IEA)
chronic myeloid leukemia pathway  (IEA)
colorectal cancer pathway  (IEA)
E-cadherin signaling pathway  (EXP)
endometrial cancer pathway  (IEA)
Entamoebiasis pathway  (IEA)
ephrin - ephrin receptor bidirectional signaling axis  (EXP)
epidermal growth factor/neuregulin signaling pathway  (EXP,IEA,TAS)
erythropoietin signaling pathway  (EXP)
FasL mediated signaling pathway  (EXP)
Fc epsilon receptor mediated signaling pathway  (EXP)
fibroblast growth factor signaling pathway  (EXP)
glioma pathway  (IEA)
granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor signaling pathway  (EXP)
Hedgehog signaling pathway  (EXP)
hepatitis C pathway  (IEA)
insulin signaling pathway  (EXP,IEA,ISO)
insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway  (EXP)
interleukin-1 signaling pathway  (EXP)
interleukin-2 signaling pathway  (EXP)
interleukin-23 signaling pathway  (EXP)
interleukin-3 signaling pathway  (EXP)
interleukin-4 signaling pathway  (EXP)
interleukin-5 signaling pathway  (EXP)
interleukin-6 signaling pathway  (EXP)
Jak-Stat signaling pathway  (IEA)
measles pathway  (IEA)
melanoma pathway  (IEA)
mTOR signaling pathway  (IEA)
N-cadherin signaling pathway  (EXP)
neurotrophic factor signaling pathway  (IEA)
non-small cell lung carcinoma pathway  (IEA)
nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathway  (EXP)
pancreatic cancer pathway  (IEA)
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase class I signaling pathway  (EXP)
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway  (IEA)
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling pathway  (TAS)
phosphoinositide metabolic pathway  (EXP)
platelet-derived growth factor signaling pathway  (EXP)
prostate cancer pathway  (IEA)
Reelin signaling pathway  (EXP,ISO)
renal cell carcinoma pathway  (IEA)
scatter factor/hepatocyte growth factor signaling pathway  (TAS)
small cell lung carcinoma pathway  (IEA)
T cell receptor signaling pathway  (IEA)
Toll-like receptor signaling pathway  (IEA)
toxoplasmosis pathway  (IEA)
Trail mediated signaling pathway  (EXP)
type 2 diabetes mellitus pathway  (IEA)
type II interferon signaling pathway  (EXP)
vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway  (EXP,IEA)

Phenotype Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Human Phenotype
Abnormal anterior chamber morphology  (IAGP)
Abnormal dental enamel morphology  (IAGP)
Abnormal mandible morphology  (IAGP)
Abnormal pupil morphology  (IAGP)
Abnormality of the immune system  (IAGP)
Abnormality of the skin  (IAGP)
Agammaglobulinemia  (IAGP)
Alopecia  (IAGP)
Arthritis  (IAGP)
Autoimmunity  (IAGP)
Autosomal dominant inheritance  (IAGP)
Autosomal recessive inheritance  (IAGP)
B lymphocytopenia  (IAGP)
B-cell lymphoma  (IAGP)
Birth length less than 3rd percentile  (IAGP)
Brachydactyly  (IAGP)
Brain neoplasm  (IAGP)
Bronchiectasis  (IAGP)
Cataract  (IAGP)
Cellulitis  (IAGP)
Childhood onset  (IAGP)
Chronic diarrhea  (IAGP)
Chronic lymphatic leukemia  (IAGP)
Chronic otitis media  (IAGP)
Clinodactyly  (IAGP)
Conjunctivitis  (IAGP)
Corneal opacity  (IAGP)
Cough  (IAGP)
Cutaneous melanoma  (IAGP)
Decreased circulating IgA level  (IAGP)
Decreased circulating IgG level  (IAGP)
Decreased proportion of naive CD4 T cells  (IAGP)
Decreased proportion of naive CD8 T cells  (IAGP)
Deeply set eye  (IAGP)
Dehydration  (IAGP)
Delayed eruption of teeth  (IAGP)
Delayed skeletal maturation  (IAGP)
Delayed speech and language development  (IAGP)
Dental malocclusion  (IAGP)
Diabetes mellitus  (IAGP)
Diarrhea  (IAGP)
Dimple chin  (IAGP)
Downturned corners of mouth  (IAGP)
Enlarged epiphyses  (IAGP)
Enlarged tonsils  (IAGP)
Epicanthus  (IAGP)
Excessive wrinkled skin  (IAGP)
External ear malformation  (IAGP)
Failure to thrive  (IAGP)
Fatigue  (IAGP)
Fever  (IAGP)
Frontal bossing  (IAGP)
Glaucoma  (IAGP)
Glioblastoma multiforme  (IAGP)
Hepatitis  (IAGP)
High palate  (IAGP)
Hyperglycemia  (IAGP)
Hypertelorism  (IAGP)
Hypodontia  (IAGP)
Hypoplasia of the iris  (IAGP)
Immunodeficiency  (IAGP)
Increased circulating IgM level  (IAGP)
Increased proportion of transitional B cells  (IAGP)
Infantile onset  (IAGP)
Inguinal hernia  (IAGP)
Insulin resistance  (IAGP)
Insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus  (IAGP)
Intrauterine growth retardation  (IAGP)
Joint hyperflexibility  (IAGP)
Joint laxity  (IAGP)
Juvenile onset  (IAGP)
Lipoatrophy  (IAGP)
Lipodystrophy  (IAGP)
Lymphopenia  (IAGP)
Macrotia  (IAGP)
Malabsorption  (IAGP)
Malar flattening  (IAGP)
Megalocornea  (IAGP)
Meningitis  (IAGP)
Microdontia  (IAGP)
Micrognathia  (IAGP)
Midface retrusion  (IAGP)
Myopia  (IAGP)
Neoplasm  (IAGP)
Neoplasm of the large intestine  (IAGP)
Neurodevelopmental delay  (IAGP)
Neurological speech impairment  (IAGP)
Neutropenia  (IAGP)
Osteomyelitis  (IAGP)
Persistent CMV viremia  (IAGP)
Persistent EBV viremia  (IAGP)
Poor appetite  (IAGP)
Posterior embryotoxon  (IAGP)
Premature skin wrinkling  (IAGP)
Prominent forehead  (IAGP)
Prominent supraorbital ridges  (IAGP)
Prostate cancer  (IAGP)
Radial deviation of finger  (IAGP)
Recurrent bacterial infections  (IAGP)
Recurrent lower respiratory tract infections  (IAGP)
Recurrent respiratory infections  (IAGP)
Recurrent skin infections  (IAGP)
Recurrent upper respiratory tract infections  (IAGP)
Rieger anomaly  (IAGP)
Sensorineural hearing impairment  (IAGP)
Sepsis  (IAGP)
Severe short stature  (IAGP)
Short palm  (IAGP)
Short stature  (IAGP)
Sinusitis  (IAGP)
Skin rash  (IAGP)
Small for gestational age  (IAGP)
Sparse hair  (IAGP)
Splenomegaly  (IAGP)
Telecanthus  (IAGP)
Thin skin  (IAGP)
Triangular face  (IAGP)
Underdeveloped nasal alae  (IAGP)
Verrucae  (IAGP)
Weight loss  (IAGP)
Wide nasal bridge  (IAGP)

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Candidate gene association study in type 2 diabetes indicates a role for genes involved in beta-cell function as well as insulin action. Barroso I, etal., PLoS Biol. 2003 Oct;1(1):E20. Epub 2003 Oct 13.
2. Met, metastasis, motility and more. Birchmeier C, etal., Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2003 Dec;4(12):915-25.
3. MicroRNA-542-3p Suppresses Tumor Cell Invasion via Targeting AKT Pathway in Human Astrocytoma. Cai J, etal., J Biol Chem. 2015 Oct 9;290(41):24678-88. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M115.649004. Epub 2015 Aug 18.
4. Integrated genomic characterization of endometrial carcinoma. Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network, etal., Nature. 2013 May 2;497(7447):67-73. doi: 10.1038/nature12113.
5. High frequency of PIK3R1 and PIK3R2 mutations in endometrial cancer elucidates a novel mechanism for regulation of PTEN protein stability. Cheung LW, etal., Cancer Discov. 2011 Jul;1(2):170-85. doi: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-11-0039. Epub 2011 Jun 7.
6. EGF-ERBB signalling: towards the systems level. Citri A and Yarden Y, Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Jul;7(7):505-16.
7. Tissue- and fibre-specific modifications of insulin-signalling molecules in cardiac and skeletal muscle of diabetic rats. Ekladous D, etal., Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2008 Aug;35(8):971-8. Epub 2008 Apr 21.
8. The evolution of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases as regulators of growth and metabolism. Engelman JA, etal., Nat Rev Genet. 2006 Aug;7(8):606-19.
9. Selective loss of gastrointestinal mast cells and impaired immunity in PI3K-deficient mice. Fukao T, etal., Nat Immunol 2002 Mar;3(3):295-304.
10. The Met tyrosine kinase receptor in development and cancer. Gentile A, etal., Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2008 Mar;27(1):85-94.
11. A comprehensive analysis of transcript signatures of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase B signal-transduction pathway in prostate cancer. Hellwinkel OJ, etal., BJU Int. 2008 Jun;101(11):1454-60. Epub 2008 Mar 11.
12. Phosphoinositide 3-kinases as a common platform for multi-hormone signaling. Hirsch E, etal., J Endocrinol. 2007 Aug;194(2):243-56.
13. MicroRNA-Related Polymorphisms in PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway Genes Are Predictive of Limited-Disease Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment Outcomes. Jiang W, etal., Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:6501385. doi: 10.1155/2017/6501385. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
14. Activation of eNOS in rat portal hypertensive gastric mucosa is mediated by TNF-alpha via the PI 3-kinase-Akt signaling pathway. Kawanaka H, etal., Hepatology. 2002 Feb;35(2):393-402.
15. Differential regulation of insulin receptor substrates-1 and -2 (IRS-1 and IRS-2) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase isoforms in liver and muscle of the obese diabetic (ob/ob) mouse. Kerouz NJ, etal., J Clin Invest. 1997 Dec 15;100(12):3164-72.
16. Insulin signaling through insulin receptor substrate 1 and 2 in normal liver development. Khamzina L, etal., Gastroenterology 2003 Aug;125(2):572-85.
17. Protein kinase C-delta mediates neuronal apoptosis in the retinas of diabetic rats via the Akt signaling pathway. Kim YH, etal., Diabetes. 2008 Aug;57(8):2181-90. Epub 2008 Apr 28.
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