Crh (corticotropin releasing hormone) - Rat Genome Database

Send us a Message

Submit Data |  Help |  Video Tutorials |  News |  Publications |  Download |  REST API |  Citing RGD |  Contact   
Gene: Crh (corticotropin releasing hormone) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Crh
Name: corticotropin releasing hormone
RGD ID: 620505
Description: Enables corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 binding activity and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2 binding activity. Involved in several processes, including positive regulation of cell communication; regulation of secretion; and response to corticosteroid. Located in extracellular space; perikaryon; and varicosity. Used to study hypoglycemia and obesity. Biomarker of several diseases, including alcohol use disorder; cerebrovascular disease (multiple); extrahepatic cholestasis; sciatic neuropathy; and withdrawal disorder. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in obesity and panic disorder. Orthologous to human CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone); PARTICIPATES IN corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway; long term depression; INTERACTS WITH (R)-adrenaline; (R)-noradrenaline; (S)-colchicine.
Type: protein-coding
Previously known as: corticoliberin; corticotropin-releasing factor; corticotropin-releasing hormone; CRF
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Allele / Splice: Crhem1Ionsz  
Genetic Models: SD-Crhem1Ionsz
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr82104,059,184 - 104,061,048 (-)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.22102,143,055 - 102,144,919 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl2102,143,055 - 102,144,919 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx2108,674,139 - 108,676,025 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.02106,795,271 - 106,797,157 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.02101,764,428 - 101,766,314 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.02104,459,999 - 104,461,863 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl2104,459,999 - 104,461,863 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.02124,182,919 - 124,184,783 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.42104,764,023 - 104,765,887 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.12104,708,984 - 104,710,849 (-)NCBI
Celera297,536,796 - 97,538,660 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map2q24NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(R)-adrenaline  (EXP)
(R)-noradrenaline  (EXP)
(S)-colchicine  (EXP)
(S)-nicotine  (EXP,ISO)
17beta-estradiol  (EXP)
17beta-estradiol 3-benzoate  (EXP)
2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether  (ISO)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP)
2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid  (EXP)
2-arachidonoylglycerol  (ISO)
3',5'-cyclic AMP  (EXP,ISO)
3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol  (ISO)
3,5,6-trichloropyridine-2-one  (ISO)
3,5-dichloro-N-[[(2S)-1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl]methyl]-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzamide  (ISO)
3-\{1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-1H-indol-3-yl\}-4-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione  (ISO)
3-phenoxybenzoic acid  (ISO)
3alpha-hydroxy-5beta-pregnan-20-one  (EXP)
4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane  (EXP)
8-Br-cAMP  (EXP)
acephate  (EXP)
acetylcholine  (EXP)
adinazolam  (EXP)
aflatoxin B1  (ISO)
alpha-Zearalanol  (ISO)
AM-251  (EXP)
ammonium chloride  (EXP)
amphetamine  (EXP)
anandamide  (ISO)
anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one  (ISO)
arsenous acid  (ISO)
astemizole  (EXP)
astressin  (EXP)
atropine  (EXP,ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (ISO)
beta-endorphin  (EXP)
beta-naphthoflavone  (ISO)
betaxolol  (EXP)
bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
Butylbenzyl phthalate  (ISO)
Butylparaben  (EXP)
cannabidiol  (ISO)
carbon dioxide  (ISO)
chlorpromazine  (ISO)
chlorpyrifos  (EXP)
cis-caffeic acid  (EXP)
clozapine  (ISO)
cobalt dichloride  (ISO)
cocaine  (EXP)
colforsin daropate hydrochloride  (EXP,ISO)
copper(II) sulfate  (ISO)
corticosterone  (EXP,ISO)
corticotropin  (EXP)
cortisol  (ISO)
Cuprizon  (EXP)
cyanamide  (EXP)
cyclophosphamide  (EXP,ISO)
dexamethasone  (EXP)
diarsenic trioxide  (ISO)
diazinon  (EXP)
dibutyl phthalate  (ISO)
dieldrin  (EXP)
diethyl phthalate  (ISO)
Diisodecyl phthalate  (ISO)
diprotium oxide  (EXP)
dorsomorphin  (ISO)
doxapram  (EXP)
dynorphin A  (EXP)
E-4031  (EXP)
enzacamene  (EXP)
ethanol  (EXP,ISO)
fentanyl  (EXP)
finasteride  (ISO)
flavonoids  (EXP)
fluoxetine  (EXP,ISO)
formaldehyde  (ISO)
fulvestrant  (ISO)
gamma-aminobutyric acid  (EXP)
genistein  (ISO)
glycidol  (EXP)
Goe 6976  (ISO)
guanosine 5'-[beta,gamma-imido]triphosphate  (EXP)
haloperidol  (ISO)
hemin  (ISO)
hydrogen peroxide  (ISO)
idazoxan  (EXP)
imipramine  (EXP)
indometacin  (EXP)
ketamine  (EXP)
lidocaine  (EXP)
linsidomine  (EXP)
linuron  (EXP)
lipopolysaccharide  (EXP,ISO)
malathion  (EXP)
manganese atom  (EXP)
manganese(0)  (EXP)
mesoporphyrin IX  (ISO)
metamizole sodium  (EXP)
methamidophos  (EXP)
methamphetamine  (EXP)
methoxamine  (EXP)
methylmercury chloride  (ISO)
mifepristone  (EXP)
monosodium L-glutamate  (EXP)
morphine  (ISO)
naloxone  (EXP)
naltrexone  (EXP)
nickel atom  (EXP)
nicotine  (EXP,ISO)
nitric oxide  (EXP)
nitroprusside  (EXP)
paracetamol  (EXP)
paraquat  (ISO)
pentobarbital  (EXP)
perfluorooctane-1-sulfonic acid  (EXP,ISO)
perfluorooctanoic acid  (ISO)
permethrin  (EXP)
Phenelzine  (EXP)
phenytoin  (EXP)
pioglitazone  (ISO)
prednisolone  (EXP)
progesterone  (EXP,ISO)
promazine  (ISO)
propranolol  (EXP)
quercetin  (EXP)
reserpine  (EXP)
rimonabant  (EXP)
risperidone  (ISO)
SB 203580  (EXP,ISO)
SB 431542  (ISO)
SCH 23390  (EXP)
serotonin  (EXP)
sertraline  (ISO)
silicon dioxide  (ISO)
sodium arsenate  (ISO)
Soman  (EXP)
sphingosine  (EXP)
staurosporine  (EXP)
Sulpyrine  (EXP)
telmisartan  (EXP)
terbutaline  (ISO)
testosterone  (EXP)
tetraethylammonium  (EXP)
tetrodotoxin  (ISO)
thioridazine  (ISO)
toluene  (EXP)
trans-caffeic acid  (EXP)
trichloroethene  (EXP)
tropan-3alpha-yl 3-hydroxy-2-phenylpropanoate  (EXP,ISO)
valproic acid  (ISO)
vanadyl sulfate  (ISO)
water  (EXP)
yohimbine  (EXP)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
adrenal gland development  (ISO)
associative learning  (IDA)
cellular response to cocaine  (IDA)
cellular response to dexamethasone stimulus  (IEP)
diterpenoid metabolic process  (IEP)
female pregnancy  (ISO)
glucocorticoid biosynthetic process  (ISO)
hormone-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway  (IDA)
hypothalamus development  (IEP)
inflammatory response  (ISO)
learning or memory  (IMP)
locomotory exploration behavior  (ISO)
long-term synaptic potentiation  (IDA)
lung development  (ISO)
monoatomic ion homeostasis  (IEP)
negative regulation of epinephrine secretion  (IBA,IDA)
negative regulation of gene expression  (IMP)
negative regulation of glucagon secretion  (IBA,IDA)
negative regulation of luteinizing hormone secretion  (IMP)
negative regulation of norepinephrine secretion  (IDA)
negative regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure  (IDA)
neuron apoptotic process  (IDA)
positive regulation of behavioral fear response  (IDA)
positive regulation of calcium ion import  (IDA)
positive regulation of cAMP-mediated signaling  (IDA)
positive regulation of cell population proliferation  (IDA)
positive regulation of cellular process  (IDA)
positive regulation of corticosterone secretion  (IDA,IMP)
positive regulation of corticotropin secretion  (IDA,IMP,ISO)
positive regulation of cortisol secretion  (IBA,ISO)
positive regulation of digestive system process  (IDA)
positive regulation of gene expression  (IMP)
positive regulation of insulin secretion involved in cellular response to glucose stimulus  (IDA)
positive regulation of protein phosphorylation  (IDA)
regulation of serotonin secretion  (IDA)
response to alcohol  (IEP)
response to aldosterone  (IEP)
response to cocaine  (IEP)
response to corticosterone  (IEP)
response to estrogen  (IEP)
response to ethanol  (IEP)
response to ether  (IEP)
response to immobilization stress  (IEP)
response to pain  (IEP)
response to xenobiotic stimulus  (IEP)
steroid metabolic process  (IEP)
synaptic transmission, dopaminergic  (IDA,ISO)

Cellular Component
extracellular space  (IBA,IDA,ISO,TAS)
neuronal cell body  (IDA,ISO)
perikaryon  (IDA)
synapse  (IEA)
varicosity  (IDA)

Molecular Function

Molecular Pathway Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
Phenotype Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Mammalian Phenotype

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Down-regulation of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) precedes early-life experience-induced changes in hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor mRNA. Avishai-Eliner S, etal., Endocrinology 2001 Jan;142(1):89-97.
2. Pathways involved in gut mucosal barrier dysfunction induced in adult rats by maternal deprivation: corticotrophin-releasing factor and nerve growth factor interplay. Barreau F, etal., J Physiol. 2007 Apr 1;580(Pt 1):347-56. Epub 2007 Jan 18.
3. Displacement of corticotropin releasing factor from its binding protein as a possible treatment for Alzheimer's disease. Behan DP, etal., Nature. 1995 Nov 16;378(6554):284-7.
4. Alterations in the central CRF system of two different rat models of comorbid depression and functional gastrointestinal disorders. Bravo JA, etal., Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011 Jun;14(5):666-83. Epub 2010 Sep 22.
5. CRF1-R activation of the dynorphin/kappa opioid system in the mouse basolateral amygdala mediates anxiety-like behavior. Bruchas MR, etal., PLoS One. 2009 Dec 31;4(12):e8528.
6. Inhibition of food intake induced by acute stress in rats is due to satiation effects. Calvez J, etal., Physiol Behav. 2011 Jul 21;104(5):675-683.
7. Repeated restraint stress-induced increase in baroreceptor reflex sensitivity: role of corticotropin-releasing factor. Conti LH, etal., Neuropeptides 2001 Apr;35(2):71-81.
8. Effects of corticotropin-releasing factor on prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response in two rat strains. Conti LH, etal., Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2002 May;161(3):296-303. Epub 2002 Mar 28.
9. Abnormalities in corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in Alzheimer's disease and other human disorders. De Souza EB, etal., Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1987;512:237-47.
10. Corticotropin-releasing hormone induces Fas ligand production and apoptosis in PC12 cells via activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Dermitzaki E, etal., J Biol Chem 2002 Apr 5;277(14):12280-7. Epub 2002 Jan 14.
11. A single amino acid serves as an affinity switch between the receptor and the binding protein of corticotropin-releasing factor: implications for the design of agonists and antagonists. Eckart K, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Sep 25;98(20):11142-7.
12. Potential signalling pathways underlying corticotrophin-releasing hormone-mediated neuroprotection from excitotoxicity in rat hippocampus. Elliott-Hunt CR, etal., J Neurochem 2002 Feb;80(3):416-25.
13. Effects of chronic cocaine exposure on corticotropin-releasing hormone binding protein in the central nucleus of the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Erb S, etal., Neuroscience. 2004;123(4):1003-9.
14. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) can directly affect brain microvessel endothelial cells. Esposito P, etal., Brain Res 2003 Apr 11;968(2):192-8.
15. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and related peptides confer neuroprotection via type 1 CRF receptors. Facci L, etal., Neuropharmacology. 2003 Oct;45(5):623-36.
16. Gestational hypoxia alone or combined with restraint sensitizes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and induces anxiety-like behavior in adult male rat offspring. Fan JM, etal., Neuroscience. 2009 Apr 10;159(4):1363-73. Epub 2009 Feb 12.
17. Human neuronal changes in brain edema and increased intracranial pressure. Faragó N, etal., Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2016 Aug 4;4(1):78. doi: 10.1186/s40478-016-0356-x.
18. Role of corticotrophin-releasing hormone in the impairment of counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia. Flanagan DE, etal., Diabetes 2003 Mar;52(3):605-13.
19. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
20. Rat ISS GO annotations from GOA human gene data--August 2006 GOA data from the GO Consortium
21. Corticotropin releasing hormone promoter polymorphisms in giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica. Gonzalez-Gay MA, etal., Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2002 Mar-Apr;20(2):133-8.
22. Roles of two subtypes of corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor in the corticostriatal long-term potentiation under cocaine withdrawal condition. Guan X, etal., J Neurochem. 2010 Nov;115(3):795-803. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2010.06981.x. Epub 2010 Sep 28.
23. Modulation of social learning in rats by brain corticotropin-releasing factor. Heinrichs SC Brain Res. 2003 Dec 19;994(1):107-14.
24. Selective stimulatory actions of corticotropin-releasing factor ligands on correlates of energy balance. Heinrichs SC, etal., Physiol Behav. 2001 Sep 1-15;74(1-2):5-13.
25. Distribution of corticotropin-releasing factor binding protein-immunoreactivity in the rat hypothalamus: association with corticotropin-releasing factor-, urocortin 1- and vimentin-immunoreactive fibres. Henry BA, etal., J Neuroendocrinol. 2005 Mar;17(3):135-44.
26. The molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of the biological activity of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors: implications for physiology and pathophysiology. Hillhouse EW and Grammatopoulos DK, Endocr Rev. 2006 May;27(3):260-86. Epub 2006 Feb 16.
27. Hypophysiotropic thyrotropin-releasing hormone and corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons of the rat contain vesicular glutamate transporter-2. Hrabovszky E, etal., Endocrinology 2005 Jan;146(1):341-7. Epub 2004 Oct 14.
28. Rapid stress-induced elevations in corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA in rat central amygdala nucleus and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus: an in situ hybridization analysis. Hsu DT, etal., Brain Res. 1998 Mar 30;788(1-2):305-10.
29. Diurnal changes in corticotropin-releasing hormone messenger RNA in the rat thalamus. Hsu DT, etal., Neurosci Lett 2003 Feb 20;338(1):33-6.
30. CRFR1 is expressed on pancreatic beta cells, promotes beta cell proliferation, and potentiates insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. Huising MO, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jan 12;107(2):912-7. Epub 2009 Dec 22.
31. Three-amino acid motifs of urocortin II and III determine their CRF receptor subtype selectivity. Jahn O, etal., Neuropharmacology. 2004 Aug;47(2):233-42.
32. Modulation of Ca2+ influx by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family of peptides via CRF receptors in rat pancreatic beta-cells. Kageyama K, etal., Peptides. 2006 Jul;27(7):1814-9. Epub 2006 Feb 28.
33. Corticotrophin-releasing factor alters the timing of puberty in the female rat. Kinsey-Jones JS, etal., J Neuroendocrinol. 2010 Feb;22(2):102-9. Epub 2009 Dec 4.
34. Improved radiation hybrid map of rat chromosome 2: colocalization of the genes encoding corticotropin-releasing hormone and IL6-receptor with quantitative trait loci regulating the inflammatory response. Laes JF, etal., Cytogenet Cell Genet 2001;92(1-2):130-3.
35. Effects of acute ethanol on corticotropin-releasing hormone and beta-endorphin systems at the level of the rat central amygdala. Lam MP and Gianoulakis C, Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011 May 20.
36. Transient gastric irritation in the neonatal rats leads to changes in hypothalamic CRF expression, depression- and anxiety-like behavior as adults. Liu L, etal., PLoS One. 2011 May 12;6(5):e19498.
37. Stress and glucocorticoids regulated corticotropin releasing factor in rat prefrontal cortex. Meng QY, etal., Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011 Aug 6;342(1-2):54-63. Epub 2011 Jun 1.
38. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
39. Role of corticotropin-releasing hormone in ovarian steroidogenesis. Murase M, etal., Endocrine 2002 Aug;18(3):255-60.
40. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
41. Role of urocortin 2 secreted by the pituitary in the stress-induced suppression of luteinizing hormone secretion in rats. Nemoto T, etal., Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Oct;299(4):E567-75. Epub 2010 Jul 27.
42. Gene expression changes in the retina after systemic administration of aldosterone. Ono A, etal., Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2018 Jul;62(4):499-507. doi: 10.1007/s10384-018-0595-4. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
43. Urocortin, but not urocortin II, protects cultured hippocampal neurons from oxidative and excitotoxic cell death via corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type I. Pedersen WA, etal., J Neurosci 2002 Jan 15;22(2):404-12.
44. KEGG Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
45. Modulation of learning and anxiety by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and stress: differential roles of CRF receptors 1 and 2. Radulovic J, etal., J Neurosci. 1999 Jun 15;19(12):5016-25.
46. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
47. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
48. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
49. Intraventricular insulin potentiates the anorexic effect of corticotropin releasing hormone in rats. Richardson RD, etal., Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2002 Dec;283(6):R1321-6.
50. Corticotropin releasing factor-induced amygdala gamma-aminobutyric Acid release plays a key role in alcohol dependence. Roberto M, etal., Biol Psychiatry. 2010 May 1;67(9):831-9. Epub 2010 Jan 8.
51. Involvement of stress-released corticotropin-releasing hormone in the basolateral amygdala in regulating memory consolidation. Roozendaal B, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002 Oct 15;99(21):13908-13.
52. Experimental neuropathy increases limbic forebrain CRF. Rouwette T, etal., Eur J Pain. 2011 Jun 17.
53. Differential responses of corticotropin-releasing factor and urocortin 1 to acute pain stress in the rat brain. Rouwette T, etal., Neuroscience. 2011 Jun 2;183:15-24. Epub 2011 Apr 2.
54. Hypothalamic cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and corticotrophin releasing factor neurons are stimulated by extracellular volume and osmotic changes. Ruginsk SG, etal., Neuroscience. 2011 Jul 14;186:57-64. Epub 2011 Apr 28.
55. Corticotropin-releasing factor as well as opioid and dopamine are involved in tail-pinch-induced food intake of rats. Samarghandian S, etal., Neuroscience 2003;116(2):519-24.
56. Corticotropin releasing factor-distribution in rat intestine and role in neuroprotection. Sand E, etal., Regul Pept. 2011 Jan 17;166(1-3):68-75. Epub 2010 Aug 27.
57. Evidence that elevated plasma corticosterone levels are the cause of reduced hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing hormone gene expression in diabetes. Schwartz MW, etal., Regul Pept. 1997 Oct 31;72(2-3):105-12.
58. Acute effects of acephate and methamidophos and interleukin-1 on corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) synthesis in and release from the hypothalamus in vitro. Singh AK Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2002 May;132(1):9-24.
59. Amygdala-kindled seizures increase the expression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and CRF-binding protein in GABAergic interneurons of the dentate hilus. Smith MA, etal., Brain Res. 1997 Jan 16;745(1-2):248-56.
60. Association of a genetic marker at the corticotropin-releasing hormone locus with behavioral inhibition. Smoller JW, etal., Biol Psychiatry 2003 Dec 15;54(12):1376-81.
61. Acute ether stress differentially affects corticotropin-releasing factor and urocortin 1 in the Brattleboro rat. Sterrenburg L, etal., Brain Res. 2011 Jun 29;1398:21-9. Epub 2011 May 6.
62. Suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness to stress in a rat model of acute cholestasis. Swain MG, etal., J Clin Invest. 1993 May;91(5):1903-8.
63. Central alpha-adrenergic receptors and corticotropin releasing factor mediate hemodynamic responses to acute cold stress. Tan Y, etal., Brain Res 2003 Apr 4;968(1):122-9.
64. Effect of lamotrigine and carbamazepine on corticotropin-releasing factor-associated serotonergic transmission in rat dorsal raphe nucleus. Tanahashi S, etal., Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011 Sep 27.
65. Corticotropin-releasing factor requires CRF binding protein to potentiate NMDA receptors via CRF receptor 2 in dopamine neurons. Ungless MA, etal., Neuron. 2003 Jul 31;39(3):401-7.
66. Hypo-response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis after an ethanol challenge in prenatally stressed adolescent male rats. Van Waes V, etal., Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Aug;24(4):1193-200. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2006.04973.x. Epub 2006 Aug 21.
67. Urocortin, a mammalian neuropeptide related to fish urotensin I and to corticotropin-releasing factor. Vaughan J, etal., Nature 1995 Nov 16;378(6554):287-92.
68. Comparison of CRF-immunoreactive neurons distribution in mouse and rat brains and selective induction of Fos in rat hypothalamic CRF neurons by abdominal surgery. Wang L, etal., Brain Res. 2011 Jul 23.
69. [Influence of electroacupuncture on efficacy of estrogen in regulating hypothalamic reproductive endocrine activity in rats]. Wang SJ, etal., Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2011 Feb;36(1):1-6, 39.
70. The function of the adrenocortical axis in permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion: effect of glucocorticoids on the neurological outcome. Weidenfeld J, etal., Brain Res. 2011 Aug 17;1407:90-6. Epub 2011 Jun 23.
71. Alterations in central neuropeptide expression, release, and receptor binding in rats bred for high anxiety: critical role of vasopressin. Wigger A, etal., Neuropsychopharmacology 2004 Jan;29(1):1-14.
72. Focal cerebral ischemia induces CRH mRNA in rat cerebral cortex and amygdala. Wong ML, etal., Neuroreport. 1995 Sep 11;6(13):1785-8.
73. Aging associated changes in amygdalar corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and CRH-binding protein in Fischer 344 rats. Xiao C, etal., Brain Res. 2006 Feb 16;1073-1074:325-31. Epub 2006 Feb 2.
74. Central actions of corticotropin releasing factor on sensori-autonomic processing in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Youngblood K, etal., Brain Res 1996 Sep 23;734(1-2):175-85.
75. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) facilitates axon outgrowth. Yuan H, etal., Spinal Cord. 2010 Dec;48(12):850-6. Epub 2010 May 11.
76. Ferulic acid-induced anti-depression and prokinetics similar to Chaihu-Shugan-San via polypharmacology. Zhang YJ, etal., Brain Res Bull. 2011 Jul 20.
77. [The relationship of ultrastructure and function of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in early stage of sepsis in rats]. Zhang YX, etal., Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2011 May;23(5):286-9.
78. Increased CRH mRNA levels in the rat amygdala during short-term withdrawal from chronic 'binge' cocaine. Zhou Y, etal., Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003 May 26;114(1):73-9.
79. Extended access cocaine self-administration differentially activates dorsal raphe and amygdala corticotropin-releasing factor systems in rats. Zorrilla EP, etal., Addict Biol. 2011 Jul 18. doi: 10.1111/j.1369-1600.2011.00329.x.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:3274895   PMID:3876950   PMID:6603620   PMID:10861000   PMID:11329063   PMID:11826130   PMID:11860185   PMID:12223536   PMID:12372003   PMID:12394282   PMID:12463966   PMID:12639912  
PMID:12694372   PMID:12763250   PMID:12782246   PMID:12933679   PMID:12953161   PMID:14555722   PMID:14561874   PMID:14563696   PMID:14596843   PMID:14636174   PMID:15044366   PMID:15159534  
PMID:15375029   PMID:15512854   PMID:15564578   PMID:15585943   PMID:15591144   PMID:15752579   PMID:15800377   PMID:15989796   PMID:16123229   PMID:16195412   PMID:16198122   PMID:16210372  
PMID:16337313   PMID:16357101   PMID:16360122   PMID:16423352   PMID:17055465   PMID:17099900   PMID:17244200   PMID:17347308   PMID:17363455   PMID:17388940   PMID:17477982   PMID:17505125  
PMID:17514764   PMID:17631870   PMID:17636405   PMID:17640185   PMID:17690163   PMID:17722034   PMID:17766644   PMID:17825268   PMID:17904655   PMID:17908177   PMID:17921249   PMID:17927669  
PMID:17947354   PMID:17947358   PMID:18001698   PMID:18047555   PMID:18055027   PMID:18067140   PMID:18067977   PMID:18079206   PMID:18082275   PMID:18205263   PMID:18243550   PMID:18276081  
PMID:18304530   PMID:18329818   PMID:18343362   PMID:18367364   PMID:18374921   PMID:18505443   PMID:18559919   PMID:18579737   PMID:18595780   PMID:18596687   PMID:18619422   PMID:18624927  
PMID:18656313   PMID:18662341   PMID:18784337   PMID:19003957   PMID:19036986   PMID:19065825   PMID:19074588   PMID:19140304   PMID:19279290   PMID:19285486   PMID:19293294   PMID:19418633  
PMID:19460861   PMID:19500229   PMID:19543827   PMID:19699720   PMID:19729048   PMID:19901333   PMID:19944726   PMID:20004705   PMID:20548297   PMID:20561155   PMID:20624690   PMID:20688066  
PMID:20699230   PMID:20709096   PMID:20814066   PMID:20832430   PMID:20833218   PMID:20881118   PMID:20966530   PMID:20974156   PMID:21121974   PMID:21306450   PMID:21376756   PMID:21382355  
PMID:21481539   PMID:21527271   PMID:21600959   PMID:21719534   PMID:21848921   PMID:22033279   PMID:22109884   PMID:22132228   PMID:22245501   PMID:22249942   PMID:22290119   PMID:22322324  
PMID:22375940   PMID:22510725   PMID:22698524   PMID:22768175   PMID:22801106   PMID:22831701   PMID:23084728   PMID:23205497   PMID:23371389   PMID:23416448   PMID:23425370   PMID:23432085  
PMID:23538212   PMID:23568325   PMID:23628776   PMID:23895427   PMID:23916912   PMID:24021806   PMID:24065704   PMID:24139460   PMID:24246425   PMID:24317347   PMID:24464021   PMID:24682755  
PMID:24718660   PMID:25051447   PMID:25089000   PMID:25139171   PMID:25236411   PMID:25275258   PMID:25406021   PMID:25433848   PMID:25567426   PMID:25640835   PMID:25716783   PMID:26109804  
PMID:26138585   PMID:26333123   PMID:26363852   PMID:26387568   PMID:26578428   PMID:26755731   PMID:26821289   PMID:27150225   PMID:27376372   PMID:27452579   PMID:27538655   PMID:27637621  
PMID:27805752   PMID:28655627   PMID:28689880   PMID:28807676   PMID:28935440   PMID:29033027   PMID:29126185   PMID:29514102   PMID:30139928   PMID:30192883   PMID:30530860   PMID:31558322  
PMID:31614362   PMID:33441166   PMID:33745155   PMID:34111125   PMID:35732494   PMID:37041718   PMID:38419452  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr82104,059,184 - 104,061,048 (-)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.22102,143,055 - 102,144,919 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl2102,143,055 - 102,144,919 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx2108,674,139 - 108,676,025 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.02106,795,271 - 106,797,157 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.02101,764,428 - 101,766,314 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.02104,459,999 - 104,461,863 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl2104,459,999 - 104,461,863 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.02124,182,919 - 124,184,783 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.42104,764,023 - 104,765,887 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.12104,708,984 - 104,710,849 (-)NCBI
Celera297,536,796 - 97,538,660 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map2q24NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh38866,176,376 - 66,178,464 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl866,176,376 - 66,178,464 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh37867,088,611 - 67,090,699 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 36867,251,173 - 67,253,252 (-)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 34867,251,172 - 67,253,252NCBI
Celera863,080,325 - 63,082,559 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map8q13.1NCBI
HuRef862,578,767 - 62,581,001 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_1867,143,265 - 67,145,499 (-)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.0866,602,063 - 66,612,357 (-)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm39319,747,565 - 19,749,560 (-)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl319,747,565 - 19,749,560 (-)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm38319,693,401 - 19,695,396 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl319,693,401 - 19,695,396 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv37319,593,401 - 19,595,396 (-)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv36319,885,565 - 19,887,480 (-)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera319,686,501 - 19,688,496 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map3A2NCBI
cM Map35.75NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0NW_00495544412,989,210 - 12,991,300 (+)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan1-v2781,908,836 - 81,919,149 (-)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1-v2
NHGRI_mPanPan1857,548,461 - 57,558,776 (-)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v0862,714,721 - 62,716,979 (-)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.1864,382,912 - 64,385,175 (-)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl864,383,419 - 64,384,009 (-)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.12915,831,944 - 15,840,560 (-)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl2915,831,944 - 15,834,384 (-)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha2916,146,733 - 16,149,174 (-)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.02915,890,845 - 16,097,836 (-)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl2915,910,573 - 15,913,018 (-)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.12915,940,159 - 15,942,599 (-)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.02916,042,480 - 16,044,918 (-)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.02916,298,228 - 16,300,672 (-)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_02440530367,023,855 - 67,026,364 (-)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_0049364967,760,532 - 7,761,122 (+)EnsemblSpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0 Ensembl
SpeTri2.0NW_0049364967,759,656 - 7,761,555 (+)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl468,484,053 - 68,486,121 (+)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.1468,481,696 - 68,486,122 (+)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.2474,349,511 - 74,653,689 (+)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.1862,052,155 - 62,056,424 (-)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl862,052,592 - 62,053,182 (-)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_02366603979,456,894 - 79,459,404 (+)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_00462474425,194,495 - 25,196,488 (+)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_00462474425,194,458 - 25,196,658 (+)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in Crh
2 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:190
Count of miRNA genes:140
Interacting mature miRNAs:155
Prediction methods:Microtar, Miranda, Targetscan
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
61355Bp36Blood pressure QTL 362.9blood pressure trait (VT:0000183)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)25873687102844969Rat
1302794Stl27Serum triglyceride level QTL 274.40.0001blood triglyceride amount (VT:0002644)plasma triglyceride level (CMO:0000548)225413423143657569Rat
1358894Kidm24Kidney mass QTL 244.03kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000340)225413423157142209Rat
1358899Kidm23Kidney mass QTL 233.88kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000340)225413423157142209Rat
1358901Cm38Cardiac mass QTL 382heart mass (VT:0007028)heart weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000074)225413423157142209Rat
1358904Cm39Cardiac mass QTL 392.26heart mass (VT:0007028)heart weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000074)225413423157142209Rat
1358910Kidm27Kidney mass QTL 275.77kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000340)225413423157142209Rat
1358911Kidm28Kidney mass QTL 285.42kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000340)225413423157142209Rat
1358913Cm41Cardiac mass QTL 412.73heart mass (VT:0007028)heart weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000074)225413423203928301Rat
1358917Cm42Cardiac mass QTL 422.82heart mass (VT:0007028)heart weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000074)225413423203928301Rat
1358887Bw50Body weight QTL 502.39body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)225413652157142078Rat
1358908Bw49Body weight QTL 493.36body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)225413652157142078Rat
1354603Bp243Blood pressure QTL 2433.9arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)diastolic blood pressure (CMO:0000005)226917817127469484Rat
2290453Scl55Serum cholesterol level QTL 552.83blood cholesterol amount (VT:0000180)plasma total cholesterol level (CMO:0000585)226917817136917119Rat
70174BpQTLCluster2Blood pressure QTL cluster 24.24arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)diastolic blood pressure (CMO:0000005)240067944102785628Rat
70174BpQTLCluster2Blood pressure QTL cluster 24.24arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)240067944102785628Rat
70174BpQTLCluster2Blood pressure QTL cluster 24.24arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)240067944102785628Rat
70174BpQTLCluster2Blood pressure QTL cluster 24.24arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)pulse pressure (CMO:0000292)240067944102785628Rat
70174BpQTLCluster2Blood pressure QTL cluster 24.24arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)absolute change in mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000533)240067944102785628Rat
2293835Kiddil5Kidney dilation QTL 53.8kidney pelvis morphology trait (VT:0004194)hydronephrosis severity score (CMO:0001208)242804607157142209Rat
2293843Kiddil6Kidney dilation QTL 63.1kidney pelvis morphology trait (VT:0004194)hydronephrosis severity score (CMO:0001208)242804607182042367Rat
1298074Bp164Blood pressure QTL 1640.003arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)242804607202447032Rat
1298085Bp165Blood pressure QTL 1650.0006arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)242804607202447032Rat
61467Bp14Blood pressure QTL 142.2arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)diastolic blood pressure (CMO:0000005)243154682202446871Rat
61467Bp14Blood pressure QTL 142.2arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)243154682202446871Rat
2293676Bmd19Bone mineral density QTL 1910.70.0001femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)total volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001728)243162366111362592Rat
2293682Bmd24Bone mineral density QTL 248.90.0001femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)compact volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001730)243162366111362592Rat
2293671Bss44Bone structure and strength QTL 4410.970.0001lumbar vertebra morphology trait (VT:0010494)lumbar vertebra cortical cross-sectional area (CMO:0001690)243162366148478373Rat
1354601Slep1Serum leptin concentration QTL 15.39blood leptin amount (VT:0005667)serum leptin level (CMO:0000780)243171017184114403Rat
631266Bp132Blood pressure QTL 1320.0005arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)246123260202447032Rat
1331760Bp206Blood pressure QTL 2063.62454arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)256043031202447032Rat
1558648Smcn1Smooth muscle cell number QTL 10.039blood vessel smooth muscle cell quantity (VT:0010525)aorta smooth muscle cell count per unit vessel length (CMO:0001646)259134147127460910Rat
5684990Bmd82Bone mineral density QTL 822.8tibia mineral mass (VT:1000283)bone mineral content (CMO:0001554)259324377103795077Rat
5684996Bmd85Bone mineral density QTL 854.70.024tibia mineral mass (VT:1000283)bone mineral density (CMO:0001226)259324377103795077Rat
61438Cia7Collagen induced arthritis QTL 74.60.0001joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)joint inflammation composite score (CMO:0000919)259324377141596857Rat
631500Bp99Blood pressure QTL 992.5arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)259324719102755241Rat
1578777Stresp15Stress response QTL 1520.05blood aldosterone amount (VT:0005346)plasma aldosterone level (CMO:0000551)259846005104846005Rat
2306903Bp336Blood pressure QTL 3360.01arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)264366971109366971Rat
1298080Bp163Blood pressure QTL 1630.02arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)266118275202447032Rat
1354648Bp239Blood pressure QTL 2390.001arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)266118463226797303Rat
7411551Bw131Body weight QTL 13129.60.001body mass (VT:0001259)body weight gain (CMO:0000420)267942638112942638Rat
1558653Prcr1Prostate cancer resistance QTL 15prostate integrity trait (VT:0010571)area of ventral prostate occupied by tumorous lesions to total ventral prostate area ratio (CMO:0000899)272532993157142209Rat
1354605Rf48Renal function QTL 482.9blood creatinine amount (VT:0005328)plasma creatinine level (CMO:0000537)274786664206665859Rat
61465Bp13Blood pressure QTL 133.3blood pressure trait (VT:0000183)diastolic blood pressure (CMO:0000005)276539322102785628Rat
61465Bp13Blood pressure QTL 133.3blood pressure trait (VT:0000183)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)276539322102785628Rat
631198Cm22Cardiac mass QTL 224.30.0008heart left ventricle mass (VT:0007031)heart left ventricle weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000530)276539322150540526Rat
61374Edpm2Estrogen-dependent pituitary mass QTL 24.420.86pituitary gland mass (VT:0010496)pituitary gland wet weight (CMO:0000853)276539322202447032Rat
2299162Iddm32Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 322.36blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)age at onset/diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (CMO:0001140)278665616143657569Rat
1581569Uae32Urinary albumin excretion QTL 320.0001urine protein amount (VT:0005160)urine albumin excretion rate (CMO:0000757)278665619219826953Rat
724534Uae6Urinary albumin excretion QTL 610urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin level (CMO:0000130)278665619249053267Rat
61392Bp6Blood pressure QTL 67arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)pulse pressure (CMO:0000292)280270434125270434Rat
1598865Bp296Blood pressure QTL 2962.1arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)281018907126018907Rat
8662832Vetf7Vascular elastic tissue fragility QTL 73.5aorta elastin amount (VT:0003905)aorta wall extracellular elastin dry weight to aorta wall dry weight ratio (CMO:0002002)281689826221035911Rat
1354622Kidm16Kidney mass QTL 163kidney mass (VT:0002707)left kidney wet weight (CMO:0000083)281754530222436696Rat
1354649Kidm17Kidney mass QTL 172.9kidney mass (VT:0002707)calculated kidney weight (CMO:0000160)281754530227146641Rat
1578772Stresp14Stress response QTL 1450.001blood renin amount (VT:0003349)plasma renin activity level (CMO:0000116)282345893130923501Rat
7207808Bmd89Bone mineral density QTL 894.1femur strength trait (VT:0010010)femoral neck ultimate force (CMO:0001703)288862519133862519Rat
2300165Bmd49Bone mineral density QTL 494.80.0001lumbar vertebra mineral mass (VT:0010511)bone mineral density (CMO:0001226)288862519133862519Rat
2300170Bmd45Bone mineral density QTL 4512.10.0001lumbar vertebra mineral mass (VT:0010511)volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001553)288862519133862519Rat
2300185Bmd46Bone mineral density QTL 468.40.0001femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001553)288862519133862519Rat
1598862Glom9Glomerulus QTL 93.5kidney glomerulus morphology trait (VT:0005325)index of glomerular damage (CMO:0001135)292337601137337601Rat
1598863Cm65Cardiac mass QTL 652.3heart mass (VT:0007028)heart weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000074)292337601137337601Rat

Genetic Models
This gene Crh is modified in the following models/strains:


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
Medium 2
Low 8 4 4 4 7 7 52 4 7
Below cutoff 5 6 5 2 5 1 2 10 15 3 1


RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000016953   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000016953
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl2102,143,055 - 102,144,919 (-)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl2104,459,999 - 104,461,863 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_031019   ⟹   NP_112281
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr82104,059,184 - 104,061,048 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.22102,143,055 - 102,144,919 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.02104,459,999 - 104,461,863 (-)NCBI
Rnor_5.02124,182,919 - 124,184,783 (-)NCBI
RGSC_v3.42104,764,023 - 104,765,887 (-)RGD
Celera297,536,796 - 97,538,660 (-)RGD
Protein Sequences
Protein RefSeqs NP_112281 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
GenBank Protein AAA40965 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  CAA26838 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  EDM01068 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
Ensembl Protein ENSRNOP00000016953
GenBank Protein P01143 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_112281   ⟸   NM_031019
- Peptide Label: precursor
- UniProtKB: P01143 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A6IHC0 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000016953   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000016953
Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P01143-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P01143 1-187 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

RGD ID:6849970
Promoter ID:EP30038
Type:single initiation site
Description:Corticotropin-releasing factor, CRH gene.
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPD (Eukaryotic Promoter Database,
Notes:homology_group=Homology group 170; Mammalian corticotropin-releasing factor
Tissues & Cell Lines:brainstem > hypothalamus
Experiment Methods:Primer extension; experiments performed with closely related; gene
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
RGSC_v3.42104,765,887 - 104,765,947EPD

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:620505 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-53615 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000012703 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00055004773 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00060021144 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00065000302 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00065019651 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000016953 ENTREZGENE
  ENSRNOT00000016953.3 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00055007602 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00060036596 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00065000467 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00065033118 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Gene3D-CATH UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro Corticotropin-releasing_fac_CS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  CRF UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Urocortin_CRF UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:81648 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam CRF UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Crh PhenoGen
PROSITE CRF UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000012703 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00055004773 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00060021144 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00065000302 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00065019651 RatGTEx
SMART CRF UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2004-02-26 Crh  corticotropin releasing hormone      Symbol and Name status set to approved 625702 APPROVED
2002-08-07 Crh  corticotropin releasing hormone      Symbol and Name status set to provisional 70820 PROVISIONAL

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_disease decreases prepulse inhibition and the acoustic startle response; may be involved in exacerbation of schizophrenia symptoms in response to stress 1358959
gene_expression expressed in hippocampus 628441
gene_mapping maps within the Cia7 QTL region and may be a candidate gene for this QTL locus 70860
gene_process may play a critical role in early-life experience that influences the hormonal stress-response long-term 628441
gene_process plays a role in learning and memory; is a key neuroendocrine stress mediator that initiates activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis; directly mediates neuronal activity in several limbic regions 625745
gene_process reduced hypothalamic expression mediates handling-induced reduction in stress responses 628441
gene_process may play a role in increased sensitivity of baroreceptor reflex in response to stress 1358969
gene_process involved in exerting an inhibitory role on the pressor and bradycardia responses in WKY rats 1358987
gene_process involved in exerting a permissive role on the bradycardia response which is lost when blood pressure is normalized with chronic hydralazine in SHR rats 1358987
gene_regulation expression levels are increased in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) by brief footshock 625745
gene_regulation hypothalamic mRNA levels in daily-handled rats reduced around the 9th postnatal day and are sustained through postnatal days 23 and 45, i.e. beyond puberty 628441