Gal (galanin and GMAP prepropeptide) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Gal (galanin and GMAP prepropeptide) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Gal
Name: galanin and GMAP prepropeptide
RGD ID: 61954
Description: Predicted to enable galanin receptor activity; galanin receptor binding activity; and neuropeptide hormone activity. Involved in several processes, including regulation of glucocorticoid metabolic process; response to estrogen; and response to insulin. Located in secretory granule. Biomarker of brain ischemia; hypertension; mononeuropathy; and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in familial temporal lobe epilepsy 8 and opiate dependence. Orthologous to human GAL (galanin and GMAP prepropeptide); INTERACTS WITH 17alpha-ethynylestradiol; 17beta-estradiol; 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine.
Type: protein-coding
Previously known as: galanin; galanin peptides; galanin prepropeptide; galanin/GMAP prepropeptide; Galn
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Orthologs
More Info more info ...
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr81210,079,709 - 210,084,572 (-)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.21200,650,439 - 200,655,302 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1200,650,439 - 200,654,959 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx1209,023,646 - 209,028,521 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.01216,112,399 - 216,117,262 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.01208,786,607 - 208,791,470 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.01218,653,059 - 218,657,922 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1218,652,917 - 218,657,925 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.01225,520,966 - 225,525,829 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41205,936,352 - 205,941,215 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11206,089,804 - 206,094,668 (-)NCBI
Celera1198,205,890 - 198,210,753 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map1q42NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate  (ISO)
(S)-nicotine  (ISO)
1,2-dimethylhydrazine  (ISO)
17alpha-ethynylestradiol  (EXP,ISO)
17beta-estradiol  (EXP,ISO)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
2,4-dibromophenyl 2,4,5-tribromophenyl ether  (ISO)
2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-\{[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl](methyl)amino\}-2-(propan-2-yl)pentanenitrile  (ISO)
2-palmitoylglycerol  (ISO)
5-fluorouracil  (ISO)
6-propyl-2-thiouracil  (EXP)
aflatoxin B1  (ISO)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (ISO)
alpha-methylhistamine  (EXP)
amiodarone  (EXP)
amitriptyline  (EXP)
amitrole  (EXP)
amlodipine  (EXP)
ammonium chloride  (EXP)
aristolochic acid A  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (EXP,ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide I  (ISO)
bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide  (ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP)
bromochloroacetic acid  (ISO)
butanal  (ISO)
cadmium atom  (ISO)
cadmium dichloride  (ISO)
calcitriol  (ISO)
capsaicin  (EXP,ISO)
carbon nanotube  (ISO)
carbonyl sulfide  (EXP)
carrageenan  (ISO)
chlorpyrifos  (EXP)
chromium(6+)  (ISO)
clofibrate  (ISO)
clonidine  (EXP)
clonidine (amino form)  (EXP)
clonidine (imino form)  (EXP)
cocaine  (ISO)
copper atom  (EXP,ISO)
copper(0)  (EXP,ISO)
corn oil  (EXP)
corticosterone  (EXP)
coumestrol  (ISO)
Cuprizon  (EXP)
cyclophosphamide  (EXP,ISO)
cyclosporin A  (ISO)
desipramine  (EXP)
dibutyl phthalate  (EXP)
diethylstilbestrol  (EXP)
dizocilpine maleate  (EXP)
dorsomorphin  (ISO)
doxorubicin  (ISO)
ellagic acid  (EXP)
endosulfan  (EXP)
entinostat  (ISO)
ethanol  (EXP,ISO)
ferulic acid  (EXP)
flavonoids  (EXP)
fluoxetine  (ISO)
folic acid  (ISO)
FR900359  (ISO)
furan  (EXP)
glycidol  (EXP)
glycine betaine  (EXP)
hydrogen peroxide  (ISO)
isoprenaline  (EXP)
isotretinoin  (ISO)
L-ascorbic acid  (EXP)
lead(0)  (ISO)
manganese atom  (ISO)
manganese(0)  (ISO)
manganese(II) chloride  (ISO)
Meclizine  (ISO)
megestrol  (ISO)
menadione  (ISO)
mercury dibromide  (ISO)
methamphetamine  (EXP,ISO)
Methazolamide  (ISO)
methylisothiazolinone  (ISO)
methylmercury chloride  (ISO)
mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (ISO)
morphine  (ISO)
N-(3-methyl-5-sulfamoyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ylidene)acetamide  (ISO)
N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium  (ISO)
naringin  (EXP)
nickel atom  (EXP,ISO)
nickel sulfate  (ISO)
nicorandil  (EXP)
nicotine  (ISO)
ochratoxin A  (EXP,ISO)
ozone  (EXP)
p-chloromercuribenzoic acid  (ISO)
p-toluidine  (EXP)
paraquat  (EXP)
pentanal  (ISO)
pentobarbital  (EXP)
perfluorohexanesulfonic acid  (ISO)
perfluorooctanoic acid  (ISO)
Phenoxybenzamine  (EXP)
phenylmercury acetate  (ISO)
phosalone  (EXP)
phytoestrogen  (ISO)
pirinixic acid  (ISO)
potassium chromate  (ISO)
progesterone  (EXP)
propanal  (ISO)
raloxifene  (ISO)
reserpine  (EXP)
resveratrol  (ISO)
rotenone  (ISO)
S-allylcysteine  (EXP)
SB 431542  (ISO)
silicon dioxide  (EXP,ISO)
sodium arsenite  (ISO)
sodium dodecyl sulfate  (ISO)
Soman  (EXP)
sulindac  (ISO)
T-2 toxin  (ISO)
tamoxifen  (ISO)
testosterone  (EXP,ISO)
thapsigargin  (ISO)
thioglycolic acid  (EXP)
tributylstannane  (ISO)
triclosan  (ISO)
triptonide  (ISO)
tunicamycin  (ISO)
Urolithin A  (ISO)
valproic acid  (EXP,ISO)
verapamil  (ISO)
vinclozolin  (EXP)
vorinostat  (ISO)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Cellular Component


References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Large reduction in the number of galanin-immunoreactive cells in pancreatic islets of diabetic rats. Adeghate E and Ponery AS, J Neuroendocrinol. 2001 Aug;13(8):706-10.
2. Evidence for a paracrine role of endogenous adrenomedullary galanin in the regulation of glucocorticoid secretion in the rat adrenal gland. Andreis PG, etal., Int J Mol Med. 2007 Mar;19(3):511-5.
3. Disturbed release of gastrointestinal peptides in anorexia nervosa and in obesity. Baranowska B, etal., Diabetes Obes Metab. 2000 Apr;2(2):99-103.
4. Association of polymorphisms in pharmacogenetic candidate genes (OPRD1, GAL, ABCB1, OPRM1) with opioid dependence in European population: a case-control study. Beer B, etal., PLoS One. 2013 Sep 25;8(9):e75359. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075359. eCollection 2013.
5. Enteric neuropeptides in streptozotocin-diabetic rats; effects of insulin and aldose reductase inhibition. Belai A, etal., J Auton Nerv Syst. 1996 May 6;58(3):163-9.
6. Circulating acylated and total ghrelin and galanin in children with insulin-treated type 1 diabetes: relationship to insulin therapy, metabolic control and pubertal development. Celi F, etal., Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005 Aug;63(2):139-45.
7. Effects of fluoxetine administration on regional galanin expression in obese Zucker rat hypothalamus. Churruca I, etal., Nutr Neurosci. 2004 Jun;7(3):171-5.
8. Decreases in the expression of CGRP and galanin mRNA in central and peripheral neurons related to the control of blood pressure following experimental hypertension in rats. Coelho EF, etal., Brain Res Bull. 2004 Jul 30;64(1):59-66.
9. Specific expression of galanin in the peri-infarct zone after permanent focal cerebral ischemia in the rat. De Michele M, etal., Regul Pept. 2006 Mar 15;134(1):38-45. Epub 2006 Feb 3.
10. Tissue-specific reduction of galanin content in the pancreas in alloxan diabetes in the mouse. Dunning BE and Ahren B, Acta Physiol Scand. 1993 Oct;149(2):215-9.
11. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
12. Rat ISS GO annotations from GOA human gene data--August 2006 GOA data from the GO Consortium
13. Involvement of galanin in nociceptive regulation in the arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus in rats with mononeuropathy. Gu XL, etal., Behav Brain Res. 2007 May 16;179(2):331-5. Epub 2007 Feb 25.
14. Colocalization of galanin and prolactin within secretory granules of anterior pituitary cells in estrogen-treated Fischer 344 rats. Hyde JF, etal., Endocrinology. 1991 Jul;129(1):270-6.
15. Tissue-specific expression of the rat galanin gene. Kaplan LM, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1988 Feb;85(4):1065-9.
16. Deficits in trace cued fear conditioning in galanin-treated rats and galanin-overexpressing transgenic mice. Kinney JW, etal., Learn Mem 2002 Jul-Aug;9(4):178-90.
17. Expression of galanin in hypothalamic magnocellular neurones of lactating rats: co-existence with vasopressin and oxytocin. Landry M, etal., J Endocrinol. 1997 Dec;155(3):467-81.
18. Positive correlation of galanin with glucose in type 2 diabetes. Legakis I, etal., Diabetes Care. 2005 Mar;28(3):759-60.
19. Increased galanin expression in the celiac ganglion of BB diabetic rats. Mei Q, etal., Neuropeptides. 2006 Feb;40(1):1-10.
20. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
21. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
22. Analysis of the mouse transcriptome based on functional annotation of 60,770 full-length cDNAs. Okazaki Y, etal., Nature. 2002 Dec 5;420(6915):563-73.
23. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM (TM). Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM (TM).
24. Galanin in adjuvant arthritis in the rat. Qinyang W, etal., J Rheumatol 2004 Feb;31(2):302-7.
25. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
26. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
27. Leptin decreases food intake induced by melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), galanin (GAL) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the rat. Sahu A Endocrinology. 1998 Nov;139(11):4739-42.
28. Human galanin (GAL) and galanin 1 receptor (GALR1) variations are not involved in fat intake and early onset obesity. Schauble N, etal., J Nutr. 2005 Jun;135(6):1387-92.
29. Expression of preprogalanin mRNA following acute and chronic restraint stress in brains of normotensive and hypertensive rats. Sweerts BW, etal., Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1999 May 21;69(1):113-23.
30. Tentative Sequence Identification Numbers Tentative Sequence Data IDs. TIGR Gene Index, Rat Data
31. Effects of galanin on proliferation and apoptosis of immature rat thymocytes. Trejter M, etal., Int J Mol Med 2002 Aug;10(2):183-6.
32. Isolation and characterization of a complementary DNA (galanin) clone from estrogen-induced pituitary tumor messenger RNA. Vrontakis ME, etal., J Biol Chem 1987 Dec 15;262(35):16755-8.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:8837218   PMID:9402244   PMID:11712539   PMID:11782668   PMID:11826038   PMID:12147214   PMID:12409220   PMID:12435417   PMID:12468105   PMID:12533397   PMID:12533601   PMID:12634483  
PMID:12814355   PMID:12933672   PMID:12955388   PMID:14581121   PMID:14623054   PMID:14988032   PMID:15342143   PMID:15752542   PMID:15790727   PMID:15829223   PMID:15882902   PMID:15944005  
PMID:15944017   PMID:15944019   PMID:15944023   PMID:16143396   PMID:16611841   PMID:16996684   PMID:17263797   PMID:17287581   PMID:17331599   PMID:17693056   PMID:17850457   PMID:17982695  
PMID:18097766   PMID:18208479   PMID:19006184   PMID:19158406   PMID:19248773   PMID:19500224   PMID:19531380   PMID:19598284   PMID:20051236   PMID:20692550   PMID:20850488   PMID:21569622  
PMID:21763401   PMID:21800306   PMID:21894515   PMID:21958458   PMID:21958860   PMID:21975846   PMID:22079346   PMID:22197078   PMID:22306246   PMID:22329353   PMID:22624057   PMID:22725682  
PMID:23415787   PMID:23687905   PMID:23731834   PMID:23747305   PMID:24517231   PMID:24602615   PMID:25197671   PMID:25445608   PMID:25545502   PMID:25639936   PMID:25691535   PMID:25917569  
PMID:25952775   PMID:26565961   PMID:26928087   PMID:27300187   PMID:27907151   PMID:27923581   PMID:28062253   PMID:28196718   PMID:28365702   PMID:28378856   PMID:29127424   PMID:33044017  
PMID:33212101   PMID:34497682  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr81210,079,709 - 210,084,572 (-)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.21200,650,439 - 200,655,302 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1200,650,439 - 200,654,959 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx1209,023,646 - 209,028,521 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.01216,112,399 - 216,117,262 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.01208,786,607 - 208,791,470 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.01218,653,059 - 218,657,922 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1218,652,917 - 218,657,925 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.01225,520,966 - 225,525,829 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41205,936,352 - 205,941,215 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11206,089,804 - 206,094,668 (-)NCBI
Celera1198,205,890 - 198,210,753 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map1q42NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh381168,684,544 - 68,691,175 (+)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl1168,683,779 - 68,691,175 (+)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh371168,452,012 - 68,458,643 (+)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 361168,208,559 - 68,215,219 (+)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 341168,208,610 - 68,215,219NCBI
Celera1165,788,525 - 65,795,257 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map11q13.2NCBI
HuRef1164,788,371 - 64,795,031 (+)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_11168,335,752 - 68,342,412 (+)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.01168,690,664 - 68,697,295 (+)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm39193,459,915 - 3,464,544 (-)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl193,459,915 - 3,464,544 (-)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm38193,409,915 - 3,414,544 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl193,409,915 - 3,414,544 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv37193,409,917 - 3,414,457 (-)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv36193,409,917 - 3,414,457 (-)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera193,279,401 - 3,283,920 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map19ANCBI
cM Map193.16NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_00495542217,202,946 - 17,207,948 (-)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_00495542217,202,770 - 17,207,948 (-)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan1-v2969,636,630 - 69,646,600 (+)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1-v2
NHGRI_mPanPan11170,679,823 - 70,689,785 (+)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v01163,770,758 - 63,777,421 (+)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.11167,075,104 - 67,081,696 (+)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl1167,075,547 - 67,081,696 (+)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.11849,240,437 - 49,246,543 (-)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl1849,240,437 - 49,246,950 (-)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha1847,849,939 - 47,855,743 (-)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.01850,155,635 - 50,161,742 (-)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl1850,155,635 - 50,161,523 (-)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.11849,376,255 - 49,382,059 (-)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.01848,950,015 - 48,955,820 (-)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.01849,743,208 - 49,749,012 (-)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_0244049475,120,761 - 5,125,269 (-)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_0049365991,563,270 - 1,566,158 (-)EnsemblSpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0 Ensembl
SpeTri2.0NW_0049365991,563,270 - 1,567,618 (-)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl24,351,113 - 4,356,647 (-)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.124,351,113 - 4,357,167 (-)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.222,931,347 - 2,937,425 (-)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.115,849,947 - 5,857,355 (-)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl15,849,952 - 5,857,072 (-)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_023666038103,132,895 - 103,140,180 (-)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_00462476718,204,508 - 18,210,416 (-)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_00462476718,195,288 - 18,210,634 (-)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in Gal
34 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:114
Count of miRNA genes:95
Interacting mature miRNAs:99
Prediction methods:Microtar, Miranda, Rnahybrid, Targetscan
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
1578780Cm52Cardiac mass QTL 523.30.0001heart mass (VT:0007028)heart wet weight (CMO:0000069)181591954219808434Rat
731168Bp154Blood pressure QTL 1543.4arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)194642644214537671Rat
1354591Cm36Cardiac mass QTL 364.1heart left ventricle mass (VT:0007031)calculated heart weight (CMO:0000073)1102813953201278233Rat
1354615Cm32Cardiac mass QTL 325.2heart left ventricle mass (VT:0007031)heart left ventricle wet weight (CMO:0000071)1102813953201278233Rat
1354606Bp246Blood pressure QTL 2463.6arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)pulse pressure (CMO:0000292)1102813953218753816Rat
7794788Mcs32Mammary carcinoma susceptibility QTL 322.61mammary gland integrity trait (VT:0010552)mammary tumor incidence/prevalence measurement (CMO:0000946)1115540693238914717Rat
7421630Bp362Blood pressure QTL 3620.001arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)1118608292241799120Rat
631549Bp89Blood pressure QTL 895.7arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)1123350581201284552Rat
1598853Memor3Memory QTL 34.5exploratory behavior trait (VT:0010471)total horizontal distance resulting from voluntary locomotion in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0001443)1143506580212458660Rat
737828Hcas3Hepatocarcinoma susceptibility QTL 34.9liver integrity trait (VT:0010547)liver tumorous lesion volume to total liver volume ratio (CMO:0001082)1144267353222987745Rat
2302378Insul11Insulin level QTL 113.25blood insulin amount (VT:0001560)serum insulin level (CMO:0000358)1144267353251128347Rat
7771612Cm80Cardiac mass QTL 808.4heart left ventricle mass (VT:0007031)heart left ventricle weight (CMO:0000776)1149448574221264292Rat
724531Uae5Urinary albumin excretion QTL 54urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin level (CMO:0000130)1150700142252085212Rat
1578759Uae30Urinary albumin excretion QTL 303.30.003urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin excretion rate (CMO:0000757)1150700247252085048Rat
1578778Pur4Proteinuria QTL 43.30.003urine total protein amount (VT:0000032)urine total protein excretion rate (CMO:0000756)1150700247252085048Rat
1354602Bw35Body weight QTL 3512.2body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)1151162512201278233Rat
1354620Kidm19Kidney mass QTL 194kidney mass (VT:0002707)calculated kidney weight (CMO:0000160)1151162512201278233Rat
1354634Kidm12Kidney mass QTL 123.9kidney mass (VT:0002707)right kidney wet weight (CMO:0000082)1151162512201278233Rat
1354636Lmblg1Limb length QTL 16.4tibia length (VT:0004357)tibia length (CMO:0000450)1151162512201278233Rat
1354610Bw34Body weight QTL 344.1body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)1151162512256448636Rat
1354646Kidm18Kidney mass QTL 185.7kidney mass (VT:0002707)calculated kidney weight (CMO:0000160)1151162512256448636Rat
1354661Bw33Body weight QTL 335.2body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)1151162512256448636Rat
1358886Bp260Blood pressure QTL 2603.67arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)1151162766225824951Rat
1549837Hcar15Hepatocarcinoma resistance QTL 150.05liver integrity trait (VT:0010547)liver tumorous lesion number (CMO:0001068)1153136852260522016Rat
4889428Stresp24Stress response QTL 240.05heart pumping trait (VT:2000009)absolute change in electrocardiographic low frequency R-R spectral component to high frequency R-R spectral component ratio (CMO:0002162)1155866514200866514Rat
1354618Kidm15Kidney mass QTL 155kidney mass (VT:0002707)left kidney wet weight (CMO:0000083)1156677124201278233Rat
2312420Pur17Proteinuria QTL 177.10.0001urine protein amount (VT:0005160)urine total protein excretion rate (CMO:0000756)1156677124218753816Rat
1354580Scort1Serum corticosterone level QTL 13.4blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)blood corticosterone level (CMO:0001172)1156677124256448636Rat
61347Bp197Blood pressure QTL 1974.2arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)blood pressure measurement (CMO:0000003)1158633083203633083Rat
2292222Bp307Blood pressure QTL 3073.060.0014arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)1164310393213533942Rat
2292220Bp306Blood pressure QTL 3063.470.00087arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)1164310393243914901Rat
619613Bp77Blood pressure QTL 770.01arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)1164747424209747424Rat
619613Bp77Blood pressure QTL 770.01arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)diastolic blood pressure (CMO:0000005)1164747424209747424Rat
1354653Despr9Despair related QTL 90.00019locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)amount of experiment time spent in a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000958)1167909849212909849Rat
61341Bp26Blood pressure QTL 26arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)1169537671214537671Rat
724562Rends1Renal damage susceptibility QTL 10.05kidney glomerulus integrity trait (VT:0010546)index of glomerular damage (CMO:0001135)1169537671214537671Rat
1358294Bw37Body weight QTL 3750.000011body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)1171310381216310381Rat
2293689Bss47Bone structure and strength QTL 477.250.0001lumbar vertebra size trait (VT:0010518)lumbar vertebra trabecular cross-sectional area (CMO:0001692)1171629477216629477Rat
2293693Bss22Bone structure and strength QTL 2233.520.0001femur morphology trait (VT:0000559)femur cross-sectional area (CMO:0001661)1171629477216629477Rat
2300161Bmd43Bone mineral density QTL 438.40.0001femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001553)1171629477216629477Rat
2300174Bmd42Bone mineral density QTL 428.40.0001lumbar vertebra mineral mass (VT:0010511)bone mineral density (CMO:0001226)1171629477216629477Rat
2300187Bmd41Bone mineral density QTL 418.90.0001femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001553)1171629477216629477Rat
2293654Bss30Bone structure and strength QTL 3032.650.0001femur strength trait (VT:0010010)femur midshaft polar moment of inertia (CMO:0001669)1171629477216629477Rat
2293673Bss27Bone structure and strength QTL 2718.630.0001femur morphology trait (VT:0000559)femur midshaft cortical cross-sectional area (CMO:0001663)1171629477216629477Rat
2293677Bss41Bone structure and strength QTL 419.380.0001lumbar vertebra size trait (VT:0010518)lumbar vertebra cross-sectional area (CMO:0001689)1171629477216629477Rat
1549830Bss1Bone structure and strength QTL 14.8femur strength trait (VT:0010010)femur ultimate force (CMO:0001675)1172609619217609619Rat
631214Bw61Body weight QTL613.40.0001intramuscular adipose amount (VT:0010044)intramuscular fat area (CMO:0001162)1173108781218108781Rat
70163Bw20Body weight QTL 205.1body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)1174133260219133260Rat
738032Hcas5Hepatocarcinoma susceptibility QTL 53.12liver integrity trait (VT:0010547)liver tumorous lesion number (CMO:0001068)1176426412257976495Rat
1600380Niddm70Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 703.10.0008blood insulin amount (VT:0001560)plasma insulin level (CMO:0000342)1176550523221550523Rat
10059600Bp378Blood pressure QTL 3783.080.05arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)1176869060221869060Rat
1354624Cm35Cardiac mass QTL355.7heart left ventricle mass (VT:0007031)calculated heart weight (CMO:0000073)1177227632256448636Rat
1354652Kidm20Kidney mass QTL 204.3kidney mass (VT:0002707)calculated kidney weight (CMO:0000160)1177227632256448636Rat
1558658Bw59Body weight QTL 593.50.0003body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)1178784622223784622Rat
634321Hc1Hypercalciuria QTL 12.91urine calcium amount (VT:0002985)urine calcium excretion rate (CMO:0000763)1178810256240830002Rat
1578763Kidm29Kidney mass QTL 293.30.0001kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight (CMO:0000085)1179567751260522016Rat
1302787Stl25Serum triglyceride level QTL 252.70.0073blood triglyceride amount (VT:0002644)plasma triglyceride level (CMO:0000548)1180359209210702199Rat
6903303Scl34Serum cholesterol QTL 342.50.0033blood cholesterol amount (VT:0000180)plasma total cholesterol level (CMO:0000585)1180359209218108781Rat
737977Bp160Blood pressure QTL 1600.001arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)1181133855226133855Rat
724559Pancm1Pancreatic morphology QTL 17.1islet of Langerhans morphology trait (VT:0005215)pancreatic islet damage composite score (CMO:0001156)1181759564214537555Rat
2293083Iddm25Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 254.18blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)1181829673224569684Rat
634312Bp143Blood pressure QTL 14330.0002arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)1182623426219932796Rat
8655655Arrd2Age-related retinal degeneration QTL 27.79retinal layer morphology trait (VT:0003727)percentage of study population developing retinopathy during a period of time (CMO:0002453)1183970203243914901Rat
8655855Arrd3Age-related retinal degeneration QTL 33.07lens clarity trait (VT:0001304)cataract incidence/prevalence measurement (CMO:0001585)1183970203243914901Rat
631838Niddm36Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 360.01insulin secretion trait (VT:0003564)calculated pancreatic islet insulin release measurement (CMO:0001217)1184550676229550676Rat
1300145Rf7Renal function QTL 72.96urine creatinine amount (VT:0010540)urine creatinine level (CMO:0000125)1185145134221264292Rat
1359018Hrtrt20Heart rate QTL 203.08heart pumping trait (VT:2000009)heart rate (CMO:0000002)1185356336202902618Rat
2312564Glom18Glomerulus QTL 182.40.003kidney glomerulus morphology trait (VT:0005325)index of glomerular damage (CMO:0001135)1185356336231689108Rat
1582206Kidm33Kidney mass QTL 336.9kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000340)1188377360224054420Rat
1358898Bp255Blood pressure QTL 2553.6arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)1191019702246062233Rat
10059590Kidm44Kidney mass QTL 443.420.025kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000340)1191033875236033875Rat
1358191Ept10Estrogen-induced pituitary tumorigenesis QTL 103.8pituitary gland mass (VT:0010496)pituitary gland wet weight (CMO:0000853)1192825253243914732Rat
8552891Epfw5Epididymal fat weight QTL 54.4epididymal fat pad mass (VT:0010421)epididymal fat pad weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000658)1193113876238113876Rat
634338Hcar4Hepatocarcinoma resistance QTL 44.6liver integrity trait (VT:0010547)liver tumorous lesion number to liver area ratio (CMO:0001210)1193422268214537671Rat
1600388Niddm67Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 675.840.000004blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level area under curve (AUC) (CMO:0000350)1195804352257091168Rat
1600395Niddm69Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 694.140.0002blood insulin amount (VT:0001560)plasma insulin level (CMO:0000342)1195804352257091168Rat
1600396Niddm68Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 684.970.0003blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level area under curve (AUC) (CMO:0000350)1195804352257091168Rat
631658Cm7Cardiac mass QTL 75.320.0001aorta mass (VT:0002845)aorta weight (CMO:0000076)1196248093241248093Rat
1358292Cm37Cardiac mass QTL 376.20.00000081heart mass (VT:0007028)heart weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000074)1196248093241248093Rat
1600374Mcs17Mammary carcinoma susceptibility QTL 173mammary gland integrity trait (VT:0010552)mammary tumor number (CMO:0000343)1197670404242670404Rat
1641926Teswt2Testicular weight QTL 22.82testis mass (VT:1000644)both testes wet weight (CMO:0000175)1197697768238755659Rat
2302375Bw83Body weight QTL 834.870.0002body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)1197697768242697768Rat
61376Bp42Blood pressure QTL 4223.4arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)1197814409242814409Rat
1298084Thym4Thymus enlargement QTL 410.68thymus mass (VT:0004954)thymus weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000612)1197814409242814409Rat
1357335Bw39Body weight QTL 393.3body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)1197814409242814409Rat
1331790Bp201Blood pressure QTL 2013.127arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)1198211513225126682Rat
634313Niddm43Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 43blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)1199050459259647894Rat
2292218Kidm35Kidney mass QTL 35kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000340)1199368955224569684Rat
2314011Gluco56Glucose level QTL 56blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level area under curve (AUC) (CMO:0000350)1199773958202166723Rat

Markers in Region
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21200,650,520 - 200,651,979 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01218,653,141 - 218,654,599NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01225,521,048 - 225,522,506UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41205,936,434 - 205,937,892UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera1198,205,972 - 198,207,430UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map11561.1UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map1q42UniSTS


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
Medium 2 3 1
Low 1 12 32 16 18 16 8 8 72 31 36 10 8
Below cutoff 23 4 4 4 3 2 4 1


RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000020425   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000020425
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1200,650,439 - 200,654,959 (-)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1218,652,917 - 218,657,925 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_033237   ⟹   NP_150240
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr81210,079,709 - 210,084,572 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.21200,650,439 - 200,655,302 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.01218,653,059 - 218,657,922 (-)NCBI
Rnor_5.01225,520,966 - 225,525,829 (-)NCBI
RGSC_v3.41205,936,352 - 205,941,215 (-)RGD
Celera1198,205,890 - 198,210,753 (-)RGD
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_150240   ⟸   NM_033237
- Peptide Label: preproprotein
- UniProtKB: P10683 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A6HYK9 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000020425   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000020425
Protein Domains

Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P10683-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P10683 1-124 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

RGD ID:13690597
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R1121
Type:single initiation site
Description:galanin and GMAP prepropeptide
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database,
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.01218,657,933 - 218,657,993EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:61954 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-56815 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000015156 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00055020968 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00060032494 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00065030489 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000020425 ENTREZGENE
  ENSRNOT00000020425.6 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00055035808 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00060056284 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00065052590 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
InterPro Galanin UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Galanin_pre UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  GMAP UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:29141 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTHR16839 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Pfam Galanin UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  GMAP UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Gal PhenoGen
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000015156 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00055020968 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00060032494 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00065030489 RatGTEx
SMART Galanin UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
TIGR TC206781

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2016-05-04 Gal  galanin and GMAP prepropeptide  Gal  galanin/GMAP prepropeptide  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2012-11-07 Gal  galanin/GMAP prepropeptide  Gal  galanin prepropeptide  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2008-10-24 Gal  galanin prepropeptide  Gal  galanin  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2002-06-10 Gal  galanin      Name updated 70584 APPROVED

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference