Gad1 (glutamate decarboxylase 1) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Gad1 (glutamate decarboxylase 1) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Gad1
Name: glutamate decarboxylase 1
RGD ID: 2652
Description: Enables glutamate binding activity; glutamate decarboxylase activity; and pyridoxal phosphate binding activity. Involved in gamma-aminobutyric acid biosynthetic process and response to xenobiotic stimulus. Located in presynaptic active zone. Used to study diabetes mellitus. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in anxiety disorder; bipolar disorder; developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 89; and schizophrenia. Orthologous to human GAD1 (glutamate decarboxylase 1); PARTICIPATES IN 2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria pathway; beta-alanine metabolic pathway; Canavan disease pathway; INTERACTS WITH (+)-pilocarpine; (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate; (R)-lipoic acid.
Type: protein-coding
Previously known as: 67 kDa glutamic acid decarboxylase; GAD-67; Gad67; Glutamate decarboxylase 1 (brain); glutamate decarboxylase 1 variant GAD67NT; glutamate decarboxylase 67 kDa isoform; glutamic acid decarboxylase 1
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Allele / Splice: Gad1em15Yyan  
Genetic Models: LE-Gad1em15Yyan
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.2355,369,704 - 55,410,335 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl355,369,704 - 55,410,333 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx358,774,583 - 58,815,086 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0367,358,166 - 67,398,662 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0365,120,847 - 65,161,332 (+)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.0356,861,440 - 56,902,139 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl356,861,396 - 56,902,157 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.0363,479,963 - 63,519,879 (+)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4352,789,370 - 52,830,038 (+)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1352,685,741 - 52,726,408 (+)NCBI
Celera354,926,942 - 54,967,478 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map3q22NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(+)-pilocarpine  (EXP)
(-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate  (EXP)
(R)-lipoic acid  (EXP)
(S)-nicotine  (EXP)
17beta-estradiol  (ISO)
2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether  (EXP,ISO)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran  (EXP)
2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine  (EXP)
3-Acetylpyridine  (EXP)
3-mercaptopropanoic acid  (EXP,ISO)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (ISO)
5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine  (EXP)
6-propyl-2-thiouracil  (EXP)
acetic acid  (ISO)
acrylamide  (ISO)
aldehydo-D-glucose  (EXP)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (ISO)
amitrole  (EXP)
ammonium chloride  (EXP)
amphetamine  (EXP,ISO)
apocynin  (ISO)
Aroclor 1254  (EXP)
belinostat  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (ISO)
bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide  (ISO)
bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
butanal  (ISO)
cadmium dichloride  (ISO)
caffeine  (EXP)
cannabidiol  (EXP)
carbamazepine  (ISO)
chaetocin  (EXP)
chlorpromazine  (ISO)
chlorpyrifos  (ISO)
cisplatin  (ISO)
clenbuterol  (EXP)
clozapine  (EXP,ISO)
cobalt dichloride  (ISO)
cocaine  (EXP,ISO)
corticosterone  (EXP,ISO)
Cuprizon  (EXP)
curcumin  (EXP)
cyclosporin A  (ISO)
cypermethrin  (EXP)
cyproconazole  (EXP)
D-glucose  (EXP)
dexamethasone  (EXP)
dextran sulfate  (ISO)
diazepam  (EXP)
diazinon  (ISO)
dibutyl phthalate  (EXP)
dihydro-beta-erythroidine  (EXP)
diisopropyl fluorophosphate  (ISO)
dimethyl sulfoxide  (ISO)
dioxygen  (EXP,ISO)
disodium selenite  (ISO)
dizocilpine maleate  (ISO)
dorsomorphin  (ISO)
doxorubicin  (ISO)
entinostat  (ISO)
ethanol  (EXP,ISO)
eticlopride(1+)  (EXP)
fenamidone  (ISO)
fluoxetine  (EXP)
fluvoxamine  (EXP)
folic acid  (ISO)
fonofos  (ISO)
fulvestrant  (ISO)
furan  (EXP)
furosemide  (EXP)
gamma-aminobutyric acid  (EXP,ISO)
genistein  (EXP)
glucose  (EXP)
glyphosate  (ISO)
haloperidol  (EXP)
hydrogen peroxide  (ISO)
kainic acid  (EXP)
ketamine  (ISO)
ketoconazole  (ISO)
L-glutamic acid  (ISO)
L-methionine  (ISO)
lead(0)  (EXP,ISO)
leflunomide  (ISO)
lipoic acid  (EXP)
malathion  (ISO)
manganese(II) chloride  (EXP)
metformin  (EXP)
methimazole  (EXP)
methotrexate  (ISO)
methylazoxymethanol  (EXP)
methylmercury chloride  (ISO)
mifepristone  (EXP)
Mipafox  (ISO)
monosodium L-glutamate  (EXP)
morphine  (EXP)
N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucinal  (ISO)
N-ethylmaleimide  (ISO)
nickel sulfate  (ISO)
nicotine  (EXP)
Nonylphenol  (EXP)
O-methyleugenol  (ISO)
olanzapine  (EXP)
oxidopamine  (EXP)
panobinostat  (ISO)
paracetamol  (ISO)
paraoxon  (ISO)
paraquat  (EXP)
parathion  (ISO)
pentanal  (ISO)
pentane-2,3-dione  (EXP)
perfluorooctanoic acid  (ISO)
phenylmercury acetate  (ISO)
picrotoxin  (EXP)
poly(I:C)  (EXP)
propanal  (ISO)
propranolol  (EXP)
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate  (EXP,ISO)
quercetin  (ISO)
raloxifene  (ISO)
reserpine  (EXP)
sarin  (ISO)
SB 431542  (ISO)
sodium arsenite  (EXP,ISO)
Soman  (ISO)
sotorasib  (ISO)
streptozocin  (EXP)
sulfadimethoxine  (EXP)
sulpiride  (ISO)
tamoxifen  (ISO)
terbufos  (ISO)
testosterone  (EXP)
titanium dioxide  (ISO)
toluene  (EXP)
trametinib  (ISO)
trichostatin A  (ISO)
triphenyl phosphate  (EXP)
triptonide  (ISO)
valproic acid  (EXP,ISO)
vigabatrin  (EXP)
vorinostat  (ISO)
VX nerve agent  (ISO)
zinc atom  (ISO)
zinc(0)  (ISO)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Cellular Component

Molecular Function

Phenotype Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Mammalian Phenotype

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Differential adaptations in GABAergic and glutamatergic systems during ethanol withdrawal in male and female rats. Alele PE and Devaud LL, Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005 Jun;29(6):1027-34.
2. Developmentally regulated expression of an exon containing a stop codon in the gene for glutamic acid decarboxylase. Bond RW, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1990 Nov;87(22):8771-5.
3. Caloric restriction augments brain glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 and -67 expression. Cheng CM, etal., J Neurosci Res. 2004 Jul 15;77(2):270-6. doi: 10.1002/jnr.20144.
4. Cleft palate in mice with a targeted mutation in the gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase 67. Condie BG, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1997 Oct 14;94(21):11451-5.
5. Targeting of the 67-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase to intracellular organelles is mediated by its interaction with the NH2-terminal region of the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase. Dirkx R Jr, etal., J Biol Chem. 1995 Feb 3;270(5):2241-6.
6. Support for involvement of glutamate decarboxylase 1 and neuropeptide y in anxiety susceptibility. Donner J, etal., Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2012 Apr;159B(3):316-27. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.b.32029. Epub 2012 Feb 10.
7. Chronic psychotropic drug treatment causes differential expression of Reelin signaling system in frontal cortex of rats. Fatemi SH, etal., Schizophr Res. 2009 Jun;111(1-3):138-52. Epub 2009 Apr 9.
8. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
9. Post-weaning social isolation rearing influences the expression of molecules related to inhibitory neurotransmission and structural plasticity in the amygdala of adult rats. Gilabert-Juan J, etal., Brain Res. 2012 Apr 11;1448:129-36. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2012.01.073. Epub 2012 Feb 4.
10. Rat ISS GO annotations from GOA human gene data--August 2006 GOA data from the GO Consortium
11. No association between the glutamate decarboxylase 67 gene (GAD1) and schizophrenia in the Japanese population. Ikeda M, etal., Schizophr Res. 2007 Mar;91(1-3):22-6. Epub 2007 Feb 14.
12. Repeated morphine treatment alters polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule, glutamate decarboxylase-67 expression and cell proliferation in the adult rat hippocampus. Kahn L, etal., Eur J Neurosci. 2005 Jan;21(2):493-500. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2005.03883.x.
13. KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes KEGG
14. Hypoxia regulates glutamate metabolism and membrane transport in rat PC12 cells. Kobayashi S and Millhorn DE, J Neurochem. 2001 Mar;76(6):1935-48. doi: 10.1046/j.1471-4159.2001.00214.x.
15. Associations of glutamate decarboxylase genes with initial sensitivity and age-at-onset of alcohol dependence in the Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of Alcohol Dependence. Kuo PH, etal., Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009 Apr 1;101(1-2):80-7. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.11.009. Epub 2008 Dec 25.
16. Heroin addiction in African Americans: a hypothesis-driven association study. Levran O, etal., Genes Brain Behav. 2009 Jul;8(5):531-40. Epub 2009 Jun 20.
17. Rapid decrease of GAD 67 content before the convulsion induced by hyperbaric oxygen exposure. Li Q, etal., Neurochem Res. 2008 Jan;33(1):185-93. Epub 2007 Aug 22.
18. Increased GAD expression in the striatum after transient cerebral ischemia. Li Y, etal., Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010 Dec;45(4):370-7. doi: 10.1016/j.mcn.2010.07.010. Epub 2010 Jul 24.
19. Glutamate decarboxylase genes and alcoholism in Han Taiwanese men. Loh el-W, etal., Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Nov;30(11):1817-23. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2006.00218.x.
20. Regulatory properties of brain glutamate decarboxylase (GAD): the apoenzyme of GAD is present principally as the smaller of two molecular forms of GAD in brain. Martin DL, etal., J Neurosci. 1991 Sep;11(9):2725-31.
21. Structural features and regulatory properties of the brain glutamate decarboxylases. Martin DL, etal., Neurochem Int. 2000 Aug-Sep;37(2-3):111-9.
22. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
23. Cloning, characterization, and autoimmune recognition of rat islet glutamic acid decarboxylase in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Michelsen BK, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1991 Oct 1;88(19):8754-8.
24. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
25. Increased anxiety-like behaviour and altered GABAergic system in the amygdala and cerebellum of VPA rats - An animal model of autism. Olexová L, etal., Neurosci Lett. 2016 Aug 26;629:9-14. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2016.06.035. Epub 2016 Jun 25.
26. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline
27. KEGG Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
28. SMPDB Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import SMPDB annotations from SMPDB into RGD
29. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
30. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
31. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
32. High-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus selectively reverses dopamine denervation-induced cellular defects in the output structures of the basal ganglia in the rat. Salin P, etal., J Neurosci 2002 Jun 15;22(12):5137-48.
33. Increased density of GAD65/67 immunoreactive neurons in the posterior subiculum and parahippocampal gyrus in treated patients with chronic schizophrenia. Schreiber S, etal., World J Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Feb;12(1):57-65. Epub 2011 Jan 20.
34. GAD1 but not GAD2 polymorphisms are associated with heroin addiction phenotypes. Shi Y, etal., Neurosci Lett. 2020 Jan 19;717:134704. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2019.134704. Epub 2019 Dec 19.
35. Influence of progesterone on GAD65 and GAD67 mRNA expression in the dorsolateral striatum and prefrontal cortex of female rats repeatedly treated with cocaine. Souza MF, etal., Braz J Med Biol Res. 2009 Nov;42(11):1068-75. doi: 10.1590/S0100-879X2009001100011.
36. Expression of plasma membrane GABA transporters but not of the vesicular GABA transporter in dentate granule cells after kainic acid seizures. Sperk G, etal., Hippocampus. 2003;13(7):806-15. doi: 10.1002/hipo.10133.
37. Calsyntenins function as synaptogenic adhesion molecules in concert with neurexins. Um JW, etal., Cell Rep. 2014 Mar 27;6(6):1096-109. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2014.02.010. Epub 2014 Mar 6.
38. Association of polymorphisms in GAD1 and GAD2 genes with methamphetamine dependence. Veerasakul S, etal., Pharmacogenomics. 2017 Jan;18(1):17-22. doi: 10.2217/pgs-2016-0101. Epub 2016 Dec 14.
39. Disease-specific alterations in glutamatergic neurotransmission on inhibitory interneurons in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Woo TU, etal., Brain Res. 2008 Jul 7;1218:267-77. Epub 2008 Apr 16.
40. Polymorphisms in the glutamate decarboxylase 1 gene associated with heroin dependence. Wu W, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012 May 25;422(1):91-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.04.112. Epub 2012 Apr 30.
41. Characterization of a cDNA coding for rat glutamic acid decarboxylase. Wyborski RJ, etal., Brain Res Mol Brain Res 1990 Aug;8(3):193-8.
42. DNA methylation reactivates GAD1 expression in cancer by preventing CTCF-mediated polycomb repressive complex 2 recruitment. Yan H, etal., Oncogene. 2016 Jul 28;35(30):3995-4008. doi: 10.1038/onc.2015.423. Epub 2015 Nov 9.
43. Alterations of prefrontal cortex GABAergic transmission in the complex psychotic-like phenotype induced by adolescent delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol exposure in rats. Zamberletti E, etal., Neurobiol Dis. 2014 Mar;63:35-47. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2013.10.028. Epub 2013 Nov 4.
44. Ethanol induces GAD67 and VGAT in slice cultures of newborn rat cerebral cortex. Zink M and Spanagel R, Neuroreport. 2005 Mar 15;16(4):377-80. doi: 10.1097/00001756-200503150-00014.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:2299361   PMID:10671565   PMID:11064363   PMID:12074840   PMID:12634427   PMID:14512139   PMID:14596865   PMID:14622157   PMID:14642440   PMID:14651853   PMID:14663191   PMID:15039456  
PMID:15044549   PMID:15140559   PMID:15271064   PMID:15347806   PMID:15368530   PMID:15479642   PMID:15686475   PMID:16094313   PMID:16255028   PMID:17056007   PMID:17680886   PMID:17934249  
PMID:18022144   PMID:18165320   PMID:18606818   PMID:18758993   PMID:18801833   PMID:18973578   PMID:19190758   PMID:19596402   PMID:19701789   PMID:19885653   PMID:19911306   PMID:20096683  
PMID:20405034   PMID:20881131   PMID:20969567   PMID:22194107   PMID:22332935   PMID:23055511   PMID:23258346   PMID:23376695   PMID:23904086   PMID:23973096   PMID:24952328   PMID:24983209  
PMID:25647668   PMID:26066725   PMID:27702572   PMID:27733539   PMID:28306133   PMID:29111460   PMID:30051606   PMID:33325157   PMID:34209226   PMID:34972242   PMID:35917217   PMID:36113682  
PMID:36587827   PMID:37586565  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.2355,369,704 - 55,410,335 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl355,369,704 - 55,410,333 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx358,774,583 - 58,815,086 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0367,358,166 - 67,398,662 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0365,120,847 - 65,161,332 (+)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.0356,861,440 - 56,902,139 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl356,861,396 - 56,902,157 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.0363,479,963 - 63,519,879 (+)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4352,789,370 - 52,830,038 (+)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1352,685,741 - 52,726,408 (+)NCBI
Celera354,926,942 - 54,967,478 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map3q22NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh382170,813,210 - 170,861,151 (+)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl2170,813,213 - 170,861,151 (+)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh372171,673,397 - 171,717,661 (+)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 362171,381,446 - 171,425,907 (+)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 342171,498,706 - 171,524,775NCBI
Celera2165,289,914 - 165,334,327 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map2q31.1NCBI
HuRef2163,562,349 - 163,606,375 (+)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_12171,679,435 - 171,723,884 (+)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.02171,290,353 - 171,338,262 (+)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm39270,391,644 - 70,432,358 (+)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl270,383,416 - 70,432,358 (+)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm38270,561,303 - 70,602,014 (+)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl270,553,072 - 70,602,014 (+)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv37270,400,221 - 70,440,069 (+)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv36270,363,052 - 70,402,853 (+)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera272,228,088 - 72,268,083 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map2C2NCBI
cM Map241.63NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_0049554493,963,705 - 4,001,850 (-)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_0049554493,964,006 - 4,001,850 (-)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan12B73,504,103 - 73,548,292 (+)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v02B58,100,623 - 58,145,045 (+)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.12B175,558,538 - 175,602,951 (+)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl2B175,558,538 - 175,602,944 (+)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.13615,351,289 - 15,391,701 (+)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl3615,349,683 - 15,391,824 (+)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha3615,364,114 - 15,403,437 (+)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.03615,474,678 - 15,516,842 (+)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl3615,474,925 - 15,516,838 (+)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.13615,565,032 - 15,604,314 (+)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.03615,552,796 - 15,592,193 (+)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.03615,664,544 - 15,703,870 (+)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_024405303132,606,889 - 132,647,134 (+)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_0049365091,161,094 - 1,201,576 (+)EnsemblSpeTri2.0
SpeTri2.0NW_0049365091,160,559 - 1,201,037 (+)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl1576,991,928 - 77,034,812 (+)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.11576,991,863 - 77,034,819 (+)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.21586,375,113 - 86,419,237 (+)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
Pig Cytomap15q21-q22NCBI
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.11056,351,495 - 56,396,476 (+)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl1056,353,253 - 56,396,524 (+)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_023666040143,149,876 - 143,195,107 (-)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_0046247878,308,759 - 8,347,686 (+)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_0046247878,308,759 - 8,345,929 (+)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in Gad1
148 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Confirmed Target Of
miRNA GeneMature miRNAMethod NameResult TypeData TypeSupport TypePMID
Mir23arno-miR-23a-3pMirtarbaseexternal_infoMicroarrayFunctional MTI (Weak)18258830

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:262
Count of miRNA genes:185
Interacting mature miRNAs:199
Prediction methods:Microtar, Miranda, Rnahybrid
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
2290452Scl56Serum cholesterol level QTL 562.26blood cholesterol amount (VT:0000180)plasma total cholesterol level (CMO:0000585)3191609953Rat
1358905Hrtrt17Heart rate QTL 175.90.000014heart pumping trait (VT:2000009)heart rate (CMO:0000002)31086191289878372Rat
1358885Bp251Blood pressure QTL 2513.8arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)314489145121056321Rat
1358888Bp264Blood pressure QTL 2644.43arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)314489145121056321Rat
2298542Neuinf11Neuroinflammation QTL 113.9nervous system integrity trait (VT:0010566)spinal cord complement component 1, q subcomponent, B chain mRNA level (CMO:0002126)31500542276927699Rat
631676Cm8Cardiac mass QTL 87.030.0001aorta mass (VT:0002845)aorta weight (CMO:0000076)31695470861954708Rat
10450804Scl70Serum cholesterol level QTL 704.70.001blood LDL cholesterol amount (VT:0000181)blood low density lipoprotein cholesterol level (CMO:0000053)32071409065714090Rat
10450794Scl69Serum cholesterol level QTL 696.30.001blood LDL cholesterol amount (VT:0000181)blood low density lipoprotein cholesterol level (CMO:0000053)32071409065714090Rat
2302055Pia30Pristane induced arthritis QTL 303.50.001blood autoantibody amount (VT:0003725)serum immunoglobulin M-type rheumatoid factor level relative to an arbitrary reference serum (CMO:0002111)32793691972936919Rat
9590286Uminl1Urine mineral level QTL 13.50.001urine mineral amount (VT:0015086)urine electrolyte level (CMO:0000593)32824968773249687Rat
8694196Abfw2Abdominal fat weight QTL 216.580.001visceral adipose mass (VT:0010063)abdominal fat pad weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000095)32824968773249687Rat
8694386Bw159Body weight QTL 1594.520.001body lean mass (VT:0010483)lean tissue morphological measurement (CMO:0002184)32824968773249687Rat
8552950Pigfal12Plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 level QTL 127.3blood insulin-like growth factor amount (VT:0010479)plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 level (CMO:0001299)32824968773249687Rat
9590136Scort3Serum corticosterone level QTL 323.370.001blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)32824968773249687Rat
2303593Gluco46Glucose level QTL 463blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)32846857173468571Rat
1354590Despr11Despair related QTL 110.000031locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)amount of experiment time spent in a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000958)32846857173468571Rat
737818Hcar12Hepatocarcinoma resistance QTL 122.6liver integrity trait (VT:0010547)volume of individual liver tumorous lesion (CMO:0001078)329463235118376539Rat
61419Cia11Collagen induced arthritis QTL 115.6joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)joint inflammation composite score (CMO:0000919)33035677398535386Rat
61356Bp37Blood pressure QTL 373blood pressure trait (VT:0000183)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)33068464275684642Rat
631647Bp122Blood pressure QTL 1226.2arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)33068464275684642Rat
70216Cm14Cardiac mass QTL 142.1heart mass (VT:0007028)heart wet weight (CMO:0000069)331172320163586636Rat
11565451Bw177Body weight QTL 1770.002body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)33142640370668733Rat
11565452Kidm57Kidney mass QTL 570.001kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000340)33142640370668733Rat
12879866Cm94Cardiac mass QTL 940.001heart left ventricle mass (VT:0007031)heart left ventricle weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000530)33142640370668733Rat
12879867Cm95Cardiac mass QTL 950.047heart right ventricle mass (VT:0007033)heart right ventricle weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000914)33142640370668733Rat
12879868Am6Aortic mass QTL 60.001aorta mass (VT:0002845)aorta weight to aorta length to body weight ratio (CMO:0002722)33142640370668733Rat
2301400Cm68Cardiac mass QTL 680.001heart mass (VT:0007028)heart wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0002408)33142640370668733Rat
1300169Bp177Blood pressure QTL 1772.96arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)blood pressure time series experimental set point of the baroreceptor response (CMO:0002593)33370334761017857Rat
1354589Bw31Body weight QTL 313.3body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)33370334778196190Rat
1354604Bw36Body weight QTL 362.9body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)333703347104104347Rat
1358362Srcrt2Stress Responsive Cort QTL 22.78blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)338192233133483320Rat
738019Anxrr10Anxiety related response QTL 103.9exploratory behavior trait (VT:0010471)number of entries into a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000960)33851780383517803Rat
2302276Bw82Body weight QTL 824.32body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)33945463762951183Rat
1331777Bw24Body weight QTL 243.503body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)33945463789115240Rat
1331795Rf30Renal function QTL 303.708urine potassium amount (VT:0010539)urine potassium level (CMO:0000128)33945463789115240Rat
1354597Kidm13Kidney mass QTL 132.9kidney mass (VT:0002707)right kidney wet weight (CMO:0000082)341874578104104347Rat
2301970Bw81Body weight QTL 815.19body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)341874578155617519Rat
2301971Cm71Cardiac mass QTL 714.63heart left ventricle mass (VT:0007031)heart left ventricle weight (CMO:0000776)341874578155617519Rat
1300178Hrtrt4Heart rate QTL 43.74heart pumping trait (VT:2000009)heart rate (CMO:0000002)34382736490905114Rat
1581503Cm58Cardiac mass QTL 582.70.05heart left ventricle mass (VT:0007031)heart left ventricle weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000530)343827364121056321Rat
1559282Emca5Estrogen-induced mammary cancer QTL 53.9mammary gland integrity trait (VT:0010552)percentage of study population developing mammary tumors during a period of time (CMO:0000948)343827364169034231Rat
2292591Esta4Estrogen-induced thymic atrophy QTL 4thymus mass (VT:0004954)thymus wet weight (CMO:0000855)347233211147415807Rat
1358186Ept2Estrogen-induced pituitary tumorigenesis QTL 28.3pituitary gland mass (VT:0010496)pituitary gland wet weight (CMO:0000853)347233430110362260Rat
2292613Ept16Estrogen-induced pituitary tumorigenesis QTL 168.3pituitary gland mass (VT:0010496)pituitary gland wet weight (CMO:0000853)347233430110362260Rat
631665Bw8Body weight QTL 85.5body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)350437042119183768Rat
724523Tsu1Thymus enlargement suppressive QTL 13.84thymus mass (VT:0004954)thymus weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000612)350437504115638231Rat
1582249Bw77Body weight QTL 773.20.0025epididymal fat pad mass (VT:0010421)epididymal fat pad weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000658)35318459364655484Rat
1582218Bw74Body weight QTL 743.90.0021body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)353184593115665732Rat
1582238Bw68Body weight QTL 683.20.0064body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)353184593115665732Rat
1582239Epfw1Epididymal fat weight QTL 14.50.0006epididymal fat pad mass (VT:0010421)epididymal fat pad weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000658)353184593115665732Rat
61377Edpm3Estrogen-dependent pituitary mass QTL 37.050.038pituitary gland mass (VT:0010496)pituitary gland wet weight (CMO:0000853)35318469289878207Rat
731180Bp152Blood pressure QTL 1520.03arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)35378111291609953Rat
731180Bp152Blood pressure QTL 1520.03arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)diastolic blood pressure (CMO:0000005)35378111291609953Rat
731180Bp152Blood pressure QTL 1520.03arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)35378111291609953Rat

Markers in Region
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2355,409,542 - 55,409,741 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0356,901,347 - 56,901,545NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0363,519,087 - 63,519,285UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4352,829,246 - 52,829,444UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera354,966,686 - 54,966,884UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map3q21UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2355,410,044 - 55,410,265 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0356,901,849 - 56,902,069NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0363,519,589 - 63,519,809UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4352,829,748 - 52,829,968UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera354,967,188 - 54,967,408UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map3q21UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2355,371,214 - 55,371,389 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0356,862,950 - 56,863,124NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0363,481,473 - 63,481,647UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4352,790,880 - 52,791,054UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera354,928,452 - 54,928,626UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map3q21UniSTS

Genetic Models
This gene Gad1 is modified in the following models/strains:


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
Medium 68 2
Low 10 1 2 2 4 18 36 4 2
Below cutoff 2 33 51 39 18 39 6 6 2 9 3 7 6


RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000000008   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000000008
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl355,369,704 - 55,410,333 (+)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl356,861,396 - 56,902,157 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000084375   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000068833
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl355,369,786 - 55,394,877 (+)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl356,861,522 - 56,886,681 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000087134   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000074220
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl355,373,647 - 55,410,333 (+)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl356,868,167 - 56,902,137 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000087712   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000072778
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl356,862,691 - 56,902,137 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_017007   ⟹   NP_058703
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2355,369,704 - 55,410,335 (+)NCBI
Rnor_6.0356,861,440 - 56,902,139 (+)NCBI
Rnor_5.0363,479,963 - 63,519,879 (+)NCBI
RGSC_v3.4352,789,370 - 52,830,038 (+)RGD
Celera354,926,942 - 54,967,478 (+)RGD
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_017591454   ⟹   XP_017446943
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2355,370,406 - 55,410,335 (+)NCBI
Rnor_6.0356,862,139 - 56,902,139 (+)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_039104241   ⟹   XP_038960169
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2355,373,840 - 55,410,335 (+)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_039104242   ⟹   XP_038960170
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2355,376,437 - 55,410,335 (+)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_058703   ⟸   NM_017007
- UniProtKB: P18088 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   C9E895 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A0A0G2K7I5 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_017446943   ⟸   XM_017591454
- Peptide Label: isoform X1
- UniProtKB: P18088 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   C9E895 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A0A0G2K7I5 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000072778   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000087712
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000000008   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000000008
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000074220   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000087134
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000068833   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000084375
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_038960169   ⟸   XM_039104241
- Peptide Label: isoform X2
- UniProtKB: A0A0G2K7I5 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_038960170   ⟸   XM_039104242
- Peptide Label: isoform X3
- UniProtKB: B3VQJ0 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)

Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P18088-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P18088 1-593 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

RGD ID:13692127
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R2652
Type:single initiation site
Description:glutamate decarboxylase 1
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database,
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.0356,861,407 - 56,861,467EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:2652 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-49486 BioCyc
BioCyc Pathway GLUDEG-I-PWY [GABA shunt] BioCyc
  PWY0-1305 [L-glutamate degradation IX (via 4-aminobutanoate)] BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000000007 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000000008 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00000084375.2 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000087134.2 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Gene3D-CATH 3.40.640.10 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  3.90.1150.170 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro PyrdxlP-dep_de-COase UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Pyridoxal-P_BS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:24379 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam Pyridoxal_deC UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Gad1 PhenoGen
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000000007 RatGTEx
Superfamily-SCOP SSF53383 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Q63211_RAT UniProtKB/TrEMBL

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2008-12-08 Gad1  glutamate decarboxylase 1   Gad1  glutamic acid decarboxylase 1  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2006-03-30 Gad1  glutamic acid decarboxylase 1    glutamate decarboxylase 1  Name updated 1299863 APPROVED
2002-06-10 Gad1  Glutamate decarboxylase 1 (brain)      Symbol and Name status set to approved 70586 APPROVED

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_disease recognized as an antigen by human autoantibodies from patients with Iddm 728511
gene_process marker of GABA neuron activity in the external globus pallidus (GP), entopeduncular nucleus (EP), and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) 628317
gene_regulation high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in hemiparkinsonian rats inhibits the lesion-induced mRNA in the SNr and in EP, partially, but not in the GP and striatum 628317