Epo (erythropoietin) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Epo (erythropoietin) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Epo
Name: erythropoietin
RGD ID: 2559
Description: Predicted to enable cytokine activity; erythropoietin receptor binding activity; and protein kinase activator activity. Involved in several processes, including positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade; positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation; and response to dexamethasone. Located in cell body and extracellular space. Used to study retinal detachment and visual epilepsy. Biomarker of cholangiocarcinoma; eye disease (multiple); transient cerebral ischemia; and vascular dementia. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in several diseases, including artery disease (multiple); diabetic angiopathy; familial erythrocytosis 5; ischemia (multiple); and neurodegenerative disease (multiple). Orthologous to human EPO (erythropoietin); PARTICIPATES IN erythropoietin signaling pathway; hypoxia inducible factor pathway; cytokine mediated signaling pathway; INTERACTS WITH (+)-pilocarpine; 17beta-estradiol; 1H-indole.
Type: protein-coding
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Candidate Gene For: Edcs2
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr81224,841,285 - 24,844,725 (+)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.21219,204,258 - 19,207,948 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1219,204,508 - 19,207,946 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx1220,360,727 - 20,364,164 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.01220,973,647 - 20,977,085 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.01220,037,993 - 20,041,431 (+)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.01222,274,828 - 22,278,268 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1222,274,828 - 22,278,266 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.01224,291,481 - 24,294,921 (+)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41219,551,768 - 19,555,208 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11219,541,291 - 19,544,730 (-)NCBI
Celera1221,009,353 - 21,012,793 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map12q12NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Disease Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
acute kidney failure  (ISO)
Acute Subdural Hematoma  (ISO)
Acute-Phase Reaction  (IEP)
AIDS Dementia Complex  (ISO)
Albuminuria  (ISO)
Alzheimer's disease  (ISO)
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  (ISO)
Anastomotic Leak  (ISO)
anemia  (ISO)
beta thalassemia  (ISO)
Brain Hypoxia  (ISO)
Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia  (IEP,ISO)
Brain Injuries  (IEP,ISO)
breast cancer  (ISO)
calcinosis  (ISO)
Cardiogenic Shock  (ISO)
cardiomyopathy  (ISO)
central nervous system disease  (ISO)
cholangiocarcinoma  (IEP)
cognitive disorder  (ISO)
congenital diaphragmatic hernia  (ISO)
congestive heart failure  (ISO)
coronary artery disease  (ISO)
diabetic angiopathy  (ISO)
Diabetic Nephropathies  (ISO)
diabetic neuropathy  (ISO)
diabetic retinopathy  (ISO)
Diamond-Blackfan Anemia-Like  (ISO)
end stage renal disease  (ISO)
Endotoxemia  (ISO)
Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis  (ISO)
Experimental Autoimmune Neuritis  (IEP)
Experimental Diabetes Mellitus  (IEP)
Experimental Mammary Neoplasms  (IMP)
Experimental Sarcoma  (ISO)
familial erythrocytosis 5  (ISO)
Fatigue  (ISO)
Fetal Distress  (IEP)
gastric ulcer  (ISO)
genetic disease  (ISO)
glaucoma  (IEP,ISO)
heart disease  (ISO)
hemolytic anemia  (ISO)
hemolytic-uremic syndrome  (ISO)
Hemorrhagic Shock  (ISO)
hepatocellular carcinoma  (ISO)
high grade glioma  (ISO)
hypertension  (ISO)
hypoglycemia  (ISO)
Inflammation  (ISO)
kidney disease  (ISO)
kidney failure  (ISO)
Kidney Reperfusion Injury  (ISO)
Knee Osteoarthritis  (ISO)
limb ischemia  (ISO)
Liver Reperfusion Injury  (ISO)
macular retinal edema  (ISO)
melanoma  (ISO)
Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective  (ISO)
middle cerebral artery infarction  (ISO)
myelodysplastic syndrome  (ISO)
myocardial infarction  (ISO)
Necrosis  (ISO)
Neoplasm Invasiveness  (ISO)
Neoplasm Metastasis  (ISO)
nephrotic syndrome  (ISO)
Nerve Degeneration  (ISO)
neurodegenerative disease  (ISO)
pancytopenia  (ISO)
Paraneoplastic Syndromes  (ISO)
Parkinson's disease  (ISO)
Penetrating Wounds  (ISO)
placental insufficiency  (ISO)
pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma  (ISO)
Poisoning  (ISO)
polyneuropathy  (ISO)
porphyria  (ISO)
Pregnancy Complications  (ISO)
pulmonary embolism  (ISO)
pulmonary hypertension  (ISO)
retinal degeneration  (ISO)
retinal detachment  (IDA,IEP)
retinopathy of prematurity  (IEP)
severe combined immunodeficiency  (ISO)
Spinal Cord Compression  (IEP)
Spinal Cord Injuries  (ISO)
status epilepticus  (ISO)
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  (ISO)
thrombocytopenia  (ISO)
thrombosis  (ISO)
Thyroid Neoplasms  (ISO)
transient cerebral ischemia  (IEP,ISO)
Tubulointerstitial Fibrosis  (ISO)
type 2 diabetes mellitus  (ISO)
uremia  (ISO)
vascular dementia  (IEP)
vascular disease  (ISO)
Venous Thrombosis  (ISO)
Ventricular Fibrillation  (ISO)
ventricular septal defect  (ISO)
Ventricular Tachycardia  (ISO)
visual epilepsy  (IDA)
Weight Loss  (ISO)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(+)-pilocarpine  (EXP)
(R)-noradrenaline  (ISO)
(S)-nicotine  (ISO)
1-octadec-9-enoylglycero-3-phosphate  (ISO)
17beta-estradiol  (EXP)
1H-indole  (EXP)
2-hydroxypropanoic acid  (ISO)
2-methoxy-17beta-estradiol  (EXP)
2-naphthylamine  (ISO)
2-palmitoylglycerol  (ISO)
3',5'-cyclic AMP  (EXP)
3',5'-cyclic GMP  (ISO)
3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid  (EXP)
4-hydroxy-TEMPO  (ISO)
5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin  (ISO)
5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine  (ISO)
5-chloro-7-iodoquinolin-8-ol  (ISO)
5-fluorouracil  (EXP,ISO)
7,12-dimethyltetraphene  (ISO)
acetylcholine  (ISO)
Actein  (EXP)
aflatoxin B1  (ISO)
aldehydo-D-glucose  (ISO)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (EXP)
all-trans-retinol  (EXP,ISO)
amitrole  (ISO)
ammonium chloride  (EXP)
amphotericin B  (EXP,ISO)
apigenin  (ISO)
aristolochic acid A  (ISO)
aristolochic acids  (ISO)
baicalein  (ISO)
benzene  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
BQ 123  (EXP)
cadmium atom  (ISO)
cadmium dichloride  (EXP,ISO)
calycosin  (ISO)
calycosin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside  (ISO)
carbamazepine  (ISO)
carbon monoxide  (EXP)
carboplatin  (EXP)
ceftriaxone  (EXP)
chrysin  (ISO)
cisplatin  (EXP,ISO)
cobalt atom  (EXP,ISO)
cobalt dichloride  (EXP,ISO)
copper(II) sulfate  (ISO)
cortisol  (ISO)
curcumin  (ISO)
cycloheximide  (ISO)
cyclophosphamide  (EXP)
cyclosporin A  (ISO)
cytochalasin B  (ISO)
D-glucose  (ISO)
dacarbazine  (ISO)
dapagliflozin  (EXP)
decabromodiphenyl ether  (EXP)
dehydroepiandrosterone  (ISO)
desferrioxamine B  (EXP,ISO)
dexamethasone  (ISO)
dibenzofurans  (ISO)
diclofenac  (ISO)
diethylstilbestrol  (EXP)
Dihydrotanshinone I  (ISO)
dioxygen  (EXP,ISO)
doxorubicin  (EXP,ISO)
EC (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) inhibitor  (ISO)
enalapril  (EXP,ISO)
etoposide  (ISO)
fenoterol  (ISO)
formaldehyde  (ISO)
formononetin  (ISO)
gentamycin  (EXP)
glucose  (ISO)
glutathione  (EXP,ISO)
glyphosate  (ISO)
haloperidol  (EXP)
hydrogen peroxide  (EXP,ISO)
hydroxyurea  (ISO)
indometacin  (EXP)
indoxyl sulfate  (ISO)
iron atom  (ISO)
iron(0)  (ISO)
iron(III) citrate  (ISO)
kainic acid  (ISO)
ketoconazole  (ISO)
L-erythro-7,8-dihydrobiopterin  (ISO)
lipopolysaccharide  (ISO)
LY294002  (EXP,ISO)
malonaldehyde  (ISO)
manganese atom  (ISO)
manganese(0)  (ISO)
menadione  (ISO)
mercury dichloride  (ISO)
methotrexate  (ISO)
methylmercury chloride  (EXP)
microcystin-LR  (ISO)
mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (ISO)
monosodium L-glutamate  (EXP,ISO)
N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucinal  (EXP)
neopterin  (ISO)
nicotine  (ISO)
nitric oxide  (EXP)
nitrites  (ISO)
nitrofen  (EXP)
nitroprusside  (ISO)
Nonidet P-40  (ISO)
ochratoxin A  (ISO)
ozone  (ISO)
paclitaxel  (ISO)
paracetamol  (ISO)
paraquat  (ISO)
phenobarbital  (ISO)
phenylhydrazine  (EXP)
pirinixic acid  (ISO)
pyrogallol  (EXP)
quercetin  (ISO)
rac-lactic acid  (ISO)
reactive oxygen species  (EXP,ISO)
resveratrol  (ISO)
ribavirin  (ISO)
salubrinal  (ISO)
sapropterin  (ISO)
simvastatin  (EXP)
sodium arsenate  (EXP,ISO)
sodium stibogluconate  (ISO)
staurosporine  (EXP)
streptozocin  (EXP)
superoxide  (ISO)
testosterone  (ISO)
Tetramethylthiourea  (EXP)
triptonide  (ISO)
urethane  (ISO)
zidovudine  (ISO)
zinc dichloride  (ISO)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
acute-phase response  (IEP)
apoptotic process  (ISO)
cellular hyperosmotic response  (ISO)
embryo implantation  (ISO)
erythrocyte differentiation  (ISO,ISS)
erythrocyte maturation  (IEA)
erythropoietin-mediated signaling pathway  (IBA,ISO,ISS)
hemoglobin biosynthetic process  (ISO)
myeloid cell apoptotic process  (ISO)
negative regulation of apoptotic process  (ISO)
negative regulation of calcium ion transport into cytosol  (ISO)
negative regulation of cellular process  (IDA)
negative regulation of erythrocyte apoptotic process  (ISO)
negative regulation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to osmotic stress  (ISO)
negative regulation of myeloid cell apoptotic process  (ISO)
negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II  (ISO)
nucleate erythrocyte development  (IEA)
positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation  (IDA)
positive regulation of cell population proliferation  (IBA,IMP,ISO)
positive regulation of DNA-templated transcription  (ISO)
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade  (IMP)
positive regulation of neuron differentiation  (IDA)
positive regulation of neuron projection development  (IDA)
positive regulation of Ras protein signal transduction  (IBA,ISO)
positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein  (ISO)
regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II  (ISO)
response to axon injury  (IEP)
response to dexamethasone  (IEP)
response to electrical stimulus  (IEP)
response to estrogen  (IEP)
response to hyperoxia  (IEP)
response to hypoxia  (IEP,ISO,TAS)
response to interleukin-1  (IEP)
response to lipopolysaccharide  (IEP)
response to nutrient  (IEP)
response to salt stress  (IEP)
response to testosterone  (IEP)
response to vitamin A  (IEP)

Cellular Component
cell body  (IDA)
cell surface  (ISO)
extracellular space  (IBA,IDA,ISO)

Molecular Function

Molecular Pathway Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Upregulation of erythropoietin in rat peripheral nervous system with experimental autoimmune neuritis. Ahn M, etal., Brain Res. 2010 May 28;1333:82-90. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2010.03.072. Epub 2010 Mar 31.
2. Renoprotection by continuous erythropoietin receptor activator in puromycin aminonucleoside-induced nephrotic syndrome. Aizawa K, etal., Am J Nephrol. 2012;36(5):419-26. doi: 10.1159/000343493. Epub 2012 Oct 30.
3. Functional significance of erythropoietin receptor expression in breast cancer. Arcasoy MO, etal., Lab Invest. 2002 Jul;82(7):911-8.
4. Erythropoietin both protects from and reverses experimental diabetic neuropathy. Bianchi R, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jan 20;101(3):823-8. Epub 2004 Jan 12.
5. Erythropoietin in the cerebrospinal fluid in neurodegenerative diseases. Brettschneider J, etal., Neurosci Lett. 2006 Sep 1;404(3):347-51. Epub 2006 Jul 3.
6. Cerebrospinal fluid erythropoietin (EPO) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Brettschneider J, etal., Neurosci Lett. 2007 Apr 18;416(3):257-60. Epub 2007 Feb 3.
7. Neuroprotective effect of herpes simplex virus-mediated gene transfer of erythropoietin in hyperglycemic dorsal root ganglion neurons. Chattopadhyay M, etal., Brain. 2009 Apr;132(Pt 4):879-88. Epub 2009 Feb 24.
8. Co-delivery of G-CSF and EPO released from fibrin gel for therapeutic neovascularization in rat hindlimb ischemia model. Chen F, etal., Microcirculation. 2013 Jul;20(5):416-24. doi: 10.1111/micc.12037.
9. Nanoerythropoietin is 10-times more effective than regular erythropoietin in neuroprotection in a neonatal rat model of hypoxia and ischemia. Chen H, etal., Stroke. 2012 Mar;43(3):884-7. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.637090. Epub 2011 Dec 8.
10. The neuroprotective effect of erythropoietin-transduced human mesenchymal stromal cells in an animal model of ischemic stroke. Cho GW, etal., Brain Res. 2010 Sep 24;1353:1-13. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2010.06.013. Epub 2010 Jun 12.
11. Apaf-1, Bcl-xL, cytochrome c, and caspase-9 form the critical elements for cerebral vascular protection by erythropoietin. Chong ZZ, etal., J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2003 Mar;23(3):320-30.
12. Non-erythropoietic erythropoietin derivatives protect from light-induced and genetic photoreceptor degeneration. Colella P, etal., Hum Mol Genet. 2011 Jun 1;20(11):2251-62. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddr115. Epub 2011 Mar 19.
13. Anemia and diabetes in the absence of nephropathy. Craig KJ, etal., Diabetes Care. 2005 May;28(5):1118-23.
14. Impaired Synthesis of Erythropoietin, Glutamine Synthetase and Metallothionein in the Skin of NOD/SCID/gamma (c) (null) and Foxn1 nu/nu Mice with Misbalanced Production of MHC Class II Complex. Danielyan L, etal., Neurochem Res. 2009 Oct 14.
15. Evaluation of the effects of a high dose of erythropoietin-beta on early endotoxemia using a rat model. Eren Z, etal., Adv Clin Exp Med. 2012 May-Jun;21(3):321-9.
16. A comparative study of recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and erythropoietin (EPO) in prevention of skin flap ischemic necrosis in rats. Fayazzadeh E, etal., Arch Iran Med. 2012 Sep;15(9):553-6. doi: 012159/AIM.008.
17. Erythropoietin gene expression is suppressed after lipopolysaccharide or interleukin-1 beta injections in rats. Frede S, etal., Am J Physiol. 1997 Sep;273(3 Pt 2):R1067-71.
18. Neuroprotection in experimental stroke in the rat with an IgG-erythropoietin fusion protein. Fu A, etal., Brain Res. 2010 Nov 11;1360:193-7. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2010.09.009. Epub 2010 Sep 9.
19. Up-regulated endogenous erythropoietin/erythropoietin receptor system and exogenous erythropoietin rescue retinal ganglion cells after chronic ocular hypertension. Fu QL, etal., Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2008 Feb;28(2):317-29. Epub 2007 Jun 7.
20. Vitreous levels of erythropoietin in patients with macular oedema secondary to retinal vein occlusions: a comparative study with diabetic macular oedema. Garci-Arumi J, etal., Eye. 2009 May;23(5):1066-71. Epub 2008 Aug 1.
21. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
22. Role of renal nerves and salt intake on erythropoietin secretion in rats following carbon monoxide exposure. Gebhard C, etal., J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Oct;319(1):111-6. Epub 2006 Jun 30.
23. Erythropoietin induction by electroconvulsive seizure, gene regulation, and antidepressant-like behavioral effects. Girgenti MJ, etal., Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Aug 1;66(3):267-74. Epub 2009 Jan 29.
24. Rat ISS GO annotations from GOA human gene data--August 2006 GOA data from the GO Consortium
25. Erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor expression after experimental spinal cord injury encourages therapy by exogenous erythropoietin. Grasso G, etal., Neurosurgery. 2005 Apr;56(4):821-7; discussion 821-7.
26. Erythropoietin prevents delayed hemodynamic dysfunction after subarachnoid hemorrhage in a randomized controlled experimental setting. Guresir E, etal., J Neurol Sci. 2013 Sep 15;332(1-2):128-35. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2013.07.004. Epub 2013 Jul 30.
27. Fibronectin potentiates topical erythropoietin-induced wound repair in diabetic mice. Hamed S, etal., J Invest Dermatol. 2011 Jun;131(6):1365-74. doi: 10.1038/jid.2011.15. Epub 2011 Feb 17.
28. Porphyria syndrome associated with diabetic nephrosclerosis and erythropoietin. Hedger RW, etal., Compr Ther. 2006 Fall;32(3):163-71.
29. Erythropoietin improves motor and cognitive deficit, axonal pathology, and neuroinflammation in a combined model of diffuse traumatic brain injury and hypoxia, in association with upregulation of the erythropoietin receptor. Hellewell SC, etal., J Neuroinflammation. 2013 Dec 18;10:156. doi: 10.1186/1742-2094-10-156.
30. Erythropoietin is expressed in the human retina and it is highly elevated in the vitreous fluid of patients with diabetic macular edema. Hernandez C, etal., Diabetes Care. 2006 Sep;29(9):2028-33.
31. Protective effects of erythropoietin in experimental spinal cord injury by reducing the C/EBP-homologous protein expression. Hong Z, etal., Neurol Res. 2012 Jan;34(1):85-90. doi: 10.1179/1743132811Y.0000000026.
32. The effects of iron deficiency on estradiol-induced suppression of erythropoietin induction in rats: implications of pregnancy-related anemia. Horiguchi H, etal., Blood. 2005 Jul 1;106(1):67-74. Epub 2005 Mar 22.
33. Erythropoietin, but not asialoerythropoietin or carbamyl-erythropoietin, attenuates monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Ikarashi N, etal., Clin Exp Hypertens. 2012;34(8):575-81. doi: 10.3109/10641963.2012.681728. Epub 2012 May 4.
34. A nonerythropoietic derivative of erythropoietin inhibits tubulointerstitial fibrosis in remnant kidney. Imamura R, etal., Clin Exp Nephrol. 2012 Dec;16(6):852-62. doi: 10.1007/s10157-012-0647-x. Epub 2012 Jun 8.
35. Albuminuria is an independent predictor of decreased serum erythropoietin levels in type 2 diabetic patients. Inoue A, etal., Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007 Jan;22(1):287-8. Epub 2006 Aug 18.
36. Effects of antioxidant vitamins on renal and hepatic erythropoietin production. Jelkmann W, etal., Kidney Int. 1997 Feb;51(2):497-501.
37. [Effects of umbilical cord blood monocytes transplantation on EPO protein and oligodendrocyte progenitors in neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage]. Ji JF, etal., Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2013 Sep;15(9):775-8.
38. Erythropoietin plus insulin-like growth factor-I protects against neuronal damage in a murine model of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders. Kang YJ, etal., Ann Neurol. 2010 Sep;68(3):342-52. doi: 10.1002/ana.22070.
39. The effect of erythropoietin on microcirculation perfusion and tissue bioenergetics of the small intestine in a hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation rat model. Kao RL, etal., J Trauma. 2010 Jun;68(6):1342-8. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e3181d27dbe.
40. A novel endogenous erythropoietin mediated pathway prevents axonal degeneration. Keswani SC, etal., Ann Neurol. 2004 Dec;56(6):815-26.
41. Erythropoietin during hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes: relation to basal renin-angiotensin system activity and cognitive function. Kristensen PL, etal., Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2009 Jul;85(1):75-84. Epub 2009 Feb 10.
42. Erythropoietin and bone morphogenetic protein 7 mediate ascorbate-induced dopaminergic differentiation from embryonic mesencephalic precursors. Lee JY, etal., Neuroreport. 2003 Jul 18;14(10):1401-4.
43. Erythropoietin improves memory function with reducing endothelial dysfunction and amyloid-beta burden in Alzheimer's disease models. Lee ST, etal., J Neurochem. 2012 Jan;120(1):115-24. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2011.07534.x. Epub 2011 Nov 11.
44. Protective effects of erythropoietin on myocardial infarction in rats: the role of AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Li XJ, etal., Am J Med Sci. 2011 Aug;342(2):153-9. doi: 10.1097/MAJ.0b013e318210041d.
45. Recombinant human erythropoietin administration protects cortical neurons from traumatic brain injury in rats. Liao ZB, etal., Eur J Neurol. 2008 Feb;15(2):140-9. Epub 2007 Dec 18.
46. Erythropoietin pretreatment exerts anti-inflammatory effects in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion-injured rats via suppression of the TLR2/NF-κB pathway. Liu QS, etal., Transplant Proc. 2015 Mar;47(2):283-9. doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2014.10.045.
47. Intranasal formulation of erythropoietin (EPO) showed potent protective activity against amyloid toxicity in the Abeta(2)(5)(-)(3)(5) non-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Maurice T, etal., J Psychopharmacol. 2013 Nov;27(11):1044-57. doi: 10.1177/0269881113494939. Epub 2013 Jun 26.
48. Postnatal erythropoietin treatment mitigates neural cell loss after systemic prenatal hypoxic-ischemic injury. Mazur M, etal., J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2010 Sep;6(3):206-21. doi: 10.3171/2010.5.PEDS1032.
49. Recovery of motor spontaneous activity after intranasal delivery of human recombinant erythropoietin in a focal brain hypoxia model induced by CoCl2 in rats. Merelli A, etal., Neurotox Res. 2011 Aug;20(2):182-92. doi: 10.1007/s12640-010-9233-8. Epub 2010 Nov 30.
50. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
51. Prevalence and associations of low plasma erythropoietin in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Mojiminiyi OA, etal., Diabet Med. 2006 Aug;23(8):839-44.
52. Characterization of the erythropoietin/erythropoietin receptor axis in a rat model of liver damage and cholangiocarcinoma development. Moriconi F, etal., Histochem Cell Biol. 2013 Mar;139(3):473-85. doi: 10.1007/s00418-012-1037-x. Epub 2012 Oct 4.
53. 17Beta-estradiol decreases hypoxic induction of erythropoietin gene expression. Mukundan H, etal., Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2002 Aug;283(2):R496-504.
54. Nucleotide sequence of rat erythropoietin. Nagao M, etal., Biochim Biophys Acta 1992 Nov 15;1171(1):99-102.
55. Adaptive response of the heart to long-term anemia induced by iron deficiency. Naito Y, etal., Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009 Mar;296(3):H585-93. Epub 2009 Jan 9.
56. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
57. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline
58. The effect of erythropoietin on anastomotic healing of irradiated rats. Ozel Turkcu U, etal., J Invest Surg. 2012 Apr;25(2):127-35. doi: 10.3109/08941939.2011.611583. Epub 2011 Dec 7.
59. A new agonist of the erythropoietin receptor, Epobis, induces neurite outgrowth and promotes neuronal survival. Pankratova S, etal., J Neurochem. 2012 Jun;121(6):915-23. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2012.07751.x. Epub 2012 Apr 24.
60. Targeting the erythropoietin receptor on glioma cells reduces tumour growth. Peres EA, etal., Exp Cell Res. 2011 Oct 1;317(16):2321-32. doi: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2011.06.011. Epub 2011 Jun 30.
61. KEGG Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
62. PID Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import Pathway Interaction Database annotations from NCI into RGD
63. Erythropoietin neuroprotection is enhanced by direct cortical application following subdural blood evacuation in a rat model of acute subdural hematoma. Rahimi Nedjat M, etal., Neuroscience. 2013 May 15;238:125-34. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2013.01.067. Epub 2013 Feb 13.
64. Investigation the efficacy of intra-articular prolotherapy with erythropoietin and dextrose and intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency on pain level reduction and range of motion improvement in primary osteoarthritis of knee. Rahimzadeh P, etal., J Res Med Sci. 2014 Aug;19(8):696-702.
65. Hepatic changes of erythropoietin gene expression in a rat model of acute-phase response. Ramadori P, etal., Liver Int. 2010 Jan;30(1):55-64. doi: 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2009.02131.x. Epub 2009 Oct 13.
66. Neuroprotective effects of erythropoietin pretreatment in a rodent model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Ratilal BO, etal., J Neurosurg. 2014 Jul;121(1):55-62. doi: 10.3171/2014.2.JNS132197. Epub 2014 Apr 4.
67. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
68. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
69. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
70. Erythropoietin enhances immunostimulatory properties of immature dendritic cells. Rocchetta F, etal., Clin Exp Immunol. 2011 Aug;165(2):202-10. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2011.04417.x. Epub 2011 Jun 7.
71. Effects of continuous erythropoietin receptor activator in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury and multi-organ dysfunction. Rodrigues CE, etal., PLoS One. 2012;7(1):e29893. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029893. Epub 2012 Jan 3.
72. Role of serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase-1 in the protective effects of erythropoietin during renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Rusai K, etal., Biochem Pharmacol. 2010 Apr 15;79(8):1173-81. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2009.11.022. Epub 2009 Dec 2.
73. Erythropoietin is a paracrine mediator of ischemic tolerance in the brain: evidence from an in vitro model. Ruscher K, etal., J Neurosci 2002 Dec 1;22(23):10291-301.
74. Pyruvate protects the brain against ischemia-reperfusion injury by activating the erythropoietin signaling pathway. Ryou MG, etal., Stroke. 2012 Apr;43(4):1101-7. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.620088. Epub 2012 Jan 26.
75. Erythropoietin receptor expression is concordant with erythropoietin but not with common beta chain expression in the rat brain throughout the life span. Sanchez PE, etal., J Comp Neurol. 2009 Jun 1;514(4):403-14.
76. Optimal neuroprotection by erythropoietin requires elevated expression of its receptor in neurons. Sanchez PE, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jun 16;106(24):9848-53. Epub 2009 Jun 3.
77. Are low erythropoietin and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels indicative of tubulo-interstitial dysfunction in diabetes without persistent microalbuminuria? Singh DK, etal., Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2009 Sep;85(3):258-64. Epub 2009 Jul 19.
78. Global brain atrophy after unilateral parietal lesion and its prevention by erythropoietin. Siren AL, etal., Brain. 2006 Feb;129(Pt 2):480-9. Epub 2005 Dec 9.
79. Vitreal levels of erythropoietin are increased in patients with retinal vein occlusion and correlate with vitreal VEGF and the extent of macular edema. Stahl A, etal., Retina. 2010 Oct;30(9):1524-9. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0b013e3181d37539.
80. Prenatal glucocorticoid overexposure causes permanent increases in renal erythropoietin expression and red blood cell mass in the rat offspring. Tang JI, etal., Endocrinology. 2011 Jul;152(7):2716-21. doi: 10.1210/en.2010-1443. Epub 2011 May 3.
81. High amniotic fluid erythropoietin levels are associated with an increased frequency of fetal and neonatal morbidity in type 1 diabetic pregnancies. Teramo K, etal., Diabetologia. 2004 Oct;47(10):1695-703. Epub 2004 Oct 22.
82. Hemoglobin expression and regulation in glaucoma: insights into retinal ganglion cell oxygenation. Tezel G, etal., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Feb;51(2):907-19. doi: 10.1167/iovs.09-4014. Epub 2009 Sep 9.
83. Functional erythropoietin deficiency in patients with Type 2 diabetes and anaemia. Thomas MC, etal., Diabet Med. 2006 May;23(5):502-9.
84. Chronic treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin exerts renoprotective effects beyond hematopoiesis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. Toba H, etal., Eur J Pharmacol. 2009 Jun 10;612(1-3):106-14. Epub 2009 Apr 5.
85. Promoter polymorphism of the erythropoietin gene in severe diabetic eye and kidney complications. Tong Z, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 May 13;105(19):6998-7003. Epub 2008 May 5.
86. Neuroprotective effect of erythropoietin on nandrolone decanoate-induced brain injury in rats. Tugyan K, etal., Neurosci Lett. 2013 Jan 15;533:28-33. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2012.10.004. Epub 2012 Oct 11.
87. Hereditary influences in oxygen-induced retinopathy in the rat. van Wijngaarden P, etal., Doc Ophthalmol. 2009 Sep 19.
88. Anemia under androgen deprivation: influence of flutamide, cyproteroneacetate and orchiectomy on the erythropoietin system. Voegeli TA, etal., Horm Metab Res. 2005 Feb;37(2):89-93.
89. Comprehensive Molecular Analyses of a Macrophage-Related Gene Signature With Regard to Prognosis, Immune Features, and Biomarkers for Immunotherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Based on WGCNA and the LASSO Algorithm. Wang T, etal., Front Immunol. 2022 May 27;13:843408. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.843408. eCollection 2022.
90. Erythropoietin structure-function relationships: high degree of sequence homology among mammals. Wen D, etal., Blood 1993 Sep 1;82(5):1507-16.
91. Vascular endothelial growth factor is crucial for erythropoietin-induced improvement of cardiac function in heart failure. Westenbrink BD, etal., Cardiovasc Res. 2010 Jul 1;87(1):30-9. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvq041. Epub 2010 Feb 5.
92. Erythropoietin and sonic hedgehog mediate the neuroprotective effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor against mitochondrial inhibition. Wu CL, etal., Neurobiol Dis. 2010 Oct;40(1):146-54. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2010.05.019. Epub 2010 May 23.
93. Expression pattern of erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor in experimental model of retinal detachment. Xie Z, etal., Curr Eye Res. 2007 Sep;32(9):757-64.
94. Safety and efficacy of intravitreal injection of recombinant erythropoietin for protection of photoreceptor cells in a rat model of retinal detachment. Xie Z, etal., Eye (Lond). 2012 Jan;26(1):144-52. doi: 10.1038/eye.2011.254. Epub 2011 Oct 21.
95. Subretinal delivery of AAV2-mediated human erythropoietin gene is protective and safe in experimental diabetic retinopathy. Xu H, etal., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Mar 13;55(3):1519-30. doi: 10.1167/iovs.13-13155.
96. AAV9-mediated erythropoietin gene delivery into the brain protects nigral dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Xue YQ, etal., Gene Ther. 2010 Jan;17(1):83-94. doi: 10.1038/gt.2009.113. Epub 2009 Sep 3.
97. Recombinant human erythropoietin reduces rhabdomyolysis-induced acute renal failure in rats. Yang FL, etal., Injury. 2012 Mar;43(3):367-73. doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2011.11.013. Epub 2011 Dec 30.
98. VEGFA activates erythropoietin receptor and enhances VEGFR2-mediated pathological angiogenesis. Yang Z, etal., Am J Pathol. 2014 Apr;184(4):1230-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2013.12.023. Epub 2014 Mar 12.
99. Erythropoietin attenuates oxidative stress and apoptosis in Schwann cells isolated from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Yu T, etal., J Pharm Pharmacol. 2014 Aug;66(8):1150-60. doi: 10.1111/jphp.12244. Epub 2014 Mar 27.
100. [A study on expression of HIF-1alpha and EPO in the hippocampus of rats with vascular dementia]. Zhang B, etal., Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2006 Sep;37(5):730-3.
101. Intravitreal injection of erythropoietin protects both retinal vascular and neuronal cells in early diabetes. Zhang J, etal., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Feb;49(2):732-42.
102. Erythropoietin pretreatment ameliorates renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury by activating PI3K/Akt signalling. Zhang J, etal., Nephrology (Carlton). 2015 Apr;20(4):266-72. doi: 10.1111/nep.12384.
103. [Expression of erythropoietin and its receptor in the brain of newborn rats suffering from fetal distress]. Zhang ZM, etal., Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2011 Nov;13(11):912-6.
104. The PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways mediate the erythropoietin-modulated calcium influx in kainic acid-induced epilepsy. Zheng H, etal., Neuroreport. 2013 Apr 17;24(6):335-41. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e32835ffe03.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:9722506   PMID:12381912   PMID:12584724   PMID:12927817   PMID:13129593   PMID:14569084   PMID:14706194   PMID:15016652   PMID:15050726   PMID:15084469   PMID:15167538   PMID:15249201  
PMID:15262216   PMID:15591122   PMID:15686664   PMID:15879293   PMID:16282136   PMID:16417583   PMID:16497104   PMID:17300687   PMID:17560935   PMID:17634394   PMID:17981124   PMID:18174394  
PMID:18352839   PMID:18845609   PMID:19536483   PMID:19695235   PMID:19705458   PMID:19779256   PMID:20104680   PMID:20167254   PMID:20204781   PMID:21095239   PMID:21410687   PMID:21443457  
PMID:21461559   PMID:21707946   PMID:21722091   PMID:22294054   PMID:22495316   PMID:22659586   PMID:22766248   PMID:23728385   PMID:23821361   PMID:23971737   PMID:24524370   PMID:24685074  
PMID:24763928   PMID:24832733   PMID:24928528   PMID:24998947   PMID:25283246   PMID:25464888   PMID:25767056   PMID:25935977   PMID:26178913   PMID:26561638   PMID:26777998   PMID:26852593  
PMID:27521836   PMID:27959434   PMID:28087117   PMID:28282554   PMID:28283061   PMID:29395333   PMID:29436578   PMID:29443550   PMID:30146260   PMID:31689455   PMID:31929736   PMID:32124933  
PMID:32290638   PMID:34129202   PMID:35917324   PMID:37578618   PMID:38560469  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr81224,841,285 - 24,844,725 (+)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.21219,204,258 - 19,207,948 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1219,204,508 - 19,207,946 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx1220,360,727 - 20,364,164 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.01220,973,647 - 20,977,085 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.01220,037,993 - 20,041,431 (+)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.01222,274,828 - 22,278,268 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1222,274,828 - 22,278,266 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.01224,291,481 - 24,294,921 (+)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41219,551,768 - 19,555,208 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11219,541,291 - 19,544,730 (-)NCBI
Celera1221,009,353 - 21,012,793 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map12q12NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh387100,720,468 - 100,723,700 (+)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl7100,720,468 - 100,723,700 (+)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh377100,318,091 - 100,321,323 (+)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 367100,156,359 - 100,159,259 (+)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 34799,963,073 - 99,965,972NCBI
Celera795,048,997 - 95,051,893 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map7q22.1NCBI
HuRef794,949,230 - 94,952,126 (+)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_17100,248,723 - 100,251,623 (+)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.07101,960,533 - 101,963,765 (+)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
CRA_TCAGchr7v2799,678,028 - 99,680,928 (+)NCBI
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm395137,481,282 - 137,484,078 (-)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl5137,481,282 - 137,531,504 (-)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm385137,483,020 - 137,485,816 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl5137,483,020 - 137,533,242 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv375137,924,248 - 137,927,044 (-)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv365137,712,873 - 137,715,533 (-)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera5134,466,358 - 134,469,154 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map5G2NCBI
cM Map576.5NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_004955573203,441 - 206,355 (-)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_004955573203,875 - 206,078 (-)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan1-v26118,631,018 - 118,635,765 (+)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1-v2
NHGRI_mPanPan17166,895,649 - 166,900,396 (+)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v0792,747,671 - 92,750,886 (+)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.17106,148,062 - 106,150,974 (+)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl7106,148,062 - 106,150,974 (+)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.168,994,211 - 8,995,954 (-)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl68,994,211 - 8,996,144 (-)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha610,698,441 - 10,700,425 (-)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.068,928,384 - 8,930,368 (-)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl68,928,625 - 8,931,073 (-)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.168,780,936 - 8,782,920 (-)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.068,759,117 - 8,761,101 (-)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.068,940,837 - 8,942,821 (-)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_024409344133,290,130 - 133,295,627 (-)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_004936543743,537 - 745,343 (+)EnsemblSpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0 Ensembl
SpeTri2.0NW_004936543742,722 - 745,332 (+)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl38,620,508 - 8,622,936 (+)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.138,620,508 - 8,622,936 (+)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.238,014,859 - 8,017,287 (+)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.12812,487,222 - 12,491,986 (-)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl2812,489,766 - 12,491,908 (-)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_0236660703,816,537 - 3,820,180 (+)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0


Variants in Epo
17 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:136
Count of miRNA genes:97
Interacting mature miRNAs:118
Prediction methods:Miranda, Rnahybrid, Targetscan
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (http://mirgate.bioinfo.cnio.es/).
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
2312418Kidm41Kidney mass QTL 413.70.0001kidney mass (VT:0002707)single kidney wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000622)12119611090Rat
10755457Coatc14Coat color QTL 140.01759coat/hair pigmentation trait (VT:0010463)pigmented ventral coat/hair area to total ventral coat/hair area ratio (CMO:0001812)12122591684Rat
6893681Bw109Body weight QTL 1092.30.004body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)12123297788Rat
1581516Cm56Cardiac mass QTL 564.20.05heart left ventricle mass (VT:0007031)heart left ventricle weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000530)12129333307Rat
1598855Bp294Blood pressure QTL 2943.5arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)12134851688Rat
7411660Foco28Food consumption QTL 2810.90.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)12142110980Rat
9590086Insglur6Insulin/glucose ratio QTL 618.970.001blood insulin amount (VT:0001560)calculated plasma insulin level (CMO:0002170)12142110980Rat
8694179Bw150Body weight QTL 1502.90.001body mass (VT:0001259)body weight gain (CMO:0000420)12142110980Rat
7411586Foco5Food consumption QTL 55.40.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)12142110980Rat
7411595Foco9Food consumption QTL 940.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)12142110980Rat
7411545Bw128Body weight QTL 1285.20.001body mass (VT:0001259)body weight gain (CMO:0000420)12142110980Rat
9590147Scort7Serum corticosterone level QTL 713.610.001blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)12142110980Rat
2303575Insul14Insulin level QTL 144blood insulin amount (VT:0001560)blood insulin level (CMO:0000349)12142450532Rat
737979Pia22Pristane induced arthritis QTL 2253.1joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)joint inflammation composite score (CMO:0000919)12144465750Rat
634351Apr5Acute phase response QTL 56.7blood interleukin-6 amount (VT:0008595)plasma interleukin-6 level (CMO:0001927)12144503507Rat
2302042Pia38Pristane induced arthritis QTL 383.50.001blood immunoglobulin amount (VT:0002460)serum immunoglobulin G1 level (CMO:0002115)12144503507Rat
634350Apr4Acute phase response QTL 46orosomucoid 1 amount (VT:0010541)plasma orosomucoid 1 level (CMO:0001467)12117200546172005Rat
8552918Pigfal7Plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 level QTL 7blood insulin-like growth factor amount (VT:0010479)plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 level (CMO:0001299)12556449546669029Rat
7411547Bw129Body weight QTL 1290.001body mass (VT:0001259)body weight gain (CMO:0000420)6556449546669029Rat
7411597Foco10Food consumption QTL 100.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)12556449546669029Rat
7411641Foco19Food consumption QTL 1927.70.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)12556449546669029Rat
8552964Pigfal17Plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 level QTL 173.5blood insulin-like growth factor amount (VT:0010479)plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 level (CMO:0001299)12556449546669029Rat
7411588Foco6Food consumption QTL 60.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)12556449546669029Rat
8552912Pigfal6Plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 level QTL 65blood insulin-like growth factor amount (VT:0010479)plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 level (CMO:0001299)12556449846669029Rat
10059594Kidm46Kidney mass QTL 463.790.025kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000340)12610757946669029Rat
1302792Scl21Serum cholesterol level QTL 213.80.0011blood cholesterol amount (VT:0000180)plasma total cholesterol level (CMO:0000585)12719673046669029Rat
2293086Iddm30Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 303.82blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)12844949028302290Rat
61331Eau2Experimental allergic uveoretinitis QTL 20.0005uvea integrity trait (VT:0010551)experimental autoimmune uveitis score (CMO:0001504)12852542328064601Rat
1300157Rf21Renal function QTL 214.4renal blood flow trait (VT:2000006)absolute change in renal blood flow rate (CMO:0001168)12931821632103380Rat
1549829Scl48Serum cholesterol level QTL 485blood cholesterol amount (VT:0000180)serum total cholesterol level (CMO:0000363)12960327746669029Rat
2293699Bss49Bone structure and strength QTL 495.610.0001lumbar vertebra size trait (VT:0010518)lumbar vertebra trabecular cross-sectional area (CMO:0001692)121047413746669029Rat
2300186Bmd59Bone mineral density QTL 597.10.0001lumbar vertebra mineral mass (VT:0010511)volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001553)121047413746669029Rat
1331786Kidm11Kidney mass QTL 113.571kidney mass (VT:0002707)right kidney wet weight (CMO:0000082)121107382524234895Rat
1331755Bp219Blood pressure QTL 2193.041arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)121107382528064557Rat
1331761Bp218Blood pressure QTL 2182.973arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)121107382545055165Rat
61404Bw120Body weight QTL 1205.1body mass (VT:0001259)body mass index (BMI) (CMO:0000105)121235161946669029Rat
1641928Alcrsp5Alcohol response QTL 5response to alcohol trait (VT:0010489)duration of loss of righting reflex (CMO:0002289)121281238546669029Rat
2303569Gluco44Glucose level QTL 442blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)121281238546669029Rat
7204484Bp358Blood pressure QTL 3580.001arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)121300829619212979Rat
1549902Bp269Blood pressure QTL 269arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)121318273646669029Rat
1549912Bp268Blood pressure QTL 268arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)diastolic blood pressure (CMO:0000005)101318273646669029Rat
2302060Pia37Pristane induced arthritis QTL 376.10.001blood immunoglobulin amount (VT:0002460)serum immunoglobulin G1 level (CMO:0002115)121319815746669029Rat
61416Pia4Pristane induced arthritis QTL 48.4joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)arthritic paw count (CMO:0001460)121363552330827399Rat
61421Cia12Collagen induced arthritis QTL 124.6joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)joint inflammation composite score (CMO:0000919)121363552335682913Rat
61443Btemp2Thermal response to stress QTL 23.30.000094body temperature trait (VT:0005535)core body temperature (CMO:0001036)121502518320794014Rat
631543Bp83Blood pressure QTL 835.8arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)121555082638478808Rat
2293684Bmd26Bone mineral density QTL 264.40.0002femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)total volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001728)121587265332974238Rat
631560Apr1Acute phase response QTL 16.1orosomucoid 1 amount (VT:0010541)plasma orosomucoid 1 level (CMO:0001467)121914436246669029Rat


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
Medium 4 4 4
Low 24 24 24 10 6 22
Below cutoff 4 2 1 1 2 2 16 27 10 7 2


RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000001914   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000001914
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1219,204,508 - 19,207,946 (+)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1222,274,828 - 22,278,266 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_017001   ⟹   NP_058697
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr81224,841,285 - 24,844,725 (+)NCBI
mRatBN7.21219,204,508 - 19,207,948 (+)NCBI
Rnor_6.01222,274,828 - 22,278,268 (+)NCBI
Rnor_5.01224,291,481 - 24,294,921 (+)NCBI
RGSC_v3.41219,551,768 - 19,555,208 (-)RGD
Celera1221,009,353 - 21,012,793 (+)RGD
Protein Sequences
Protein RefSeqs NP_058697 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
GenBank Protein AAA41126 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  BAA01593 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  EDM13263 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
Ensembl Protein ENSRNOP00000001914
GenBank Protein P29676 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_058697   ⟸   NM_017001
- Peptide Label: precursor
- UniProtKB: P70504 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P29676 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A6J027 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000001914   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000001914

Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P29676-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P29676 1-192 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:2559 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-19702 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000001412 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00055000288 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00060010482 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00065000066 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000001914 ENTREZGENE
  ENSRNOT00000001914.5 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00055000490 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00060017722 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00065000112 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Gene3D-CATH 1.20.1250.10 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro 4_helix_cytokine-like_core UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  EPO/TPO_CS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  EPO_TPO UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Erythroptn UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:24335 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTHR10370 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Pfam EPO_TPO UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Epo PhenoGen
PIRSF EPO UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000001412 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00055000288 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00060010482 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00065000066 RatGTEx
Superfamily-SCOP 4-helical cytokines UniProtKB/TrEMBL, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
UniProt Secondary P70504 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2002-06-10 Epo  Erythropoietin      Symbol and Name status set to approved 70586 APPROVED

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_expression expressed in the brain and in cultured cortical neurons 628490
gene_function glycoprotein hormone 628490
gene_pathway protective effect may act through the anti-apoptotic signaling cascades 628490
gene_process mediates paracrine neuroprotection of ischemic preconditioning (IP) 628490
gene_process activates the neuronal EPO receptor, subsequently JAK-2 and PI3K 628490
gene_regulation expression is regulated by the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and mRNA is induced by low oxygen tension 628490