Tspo (translocator protein) - Rat Genome Database

Send us a Message

Submit Data |  Help |  Video Tutorials |  News |  Publications |  Download |  REST API |  Citing RGD |  Contact   
Gene: Tspo (translocator protein) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Tspo
Name: translocator protein
RGD ID: 2228
Description: Enables androgen binding activity and benzodiazepine receptor activity. Involved in several processes, including neurogenesis; positive regulation of programmed cell death; and regulation of glial cell proliferation. Located in mitochondrial outer membrane. Used to study cholesterol ester storage disease. Orthologous to human TSPO (translocator protein); PARTICIPATES IN heme biosynthetic pathway; INTERACTS WITH 1-hydroxymidazolam; 1-naphthyl isothiocyanate; 17beta-estradiol.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Previously known as: benzodiazepin receptor; Benzodiazepin receptor (peripheral); benzodiazepine receptor, peripheral; Bzrp; MBR; mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor; PBR; peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor; PKBS; Ptbzr; PTBZR02; RATPTBZR02
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Allele / Splice: Tspoem1Vpl   Tspoem2Vpl  
Genetic Models: SD-Tspoem2Vpl SD-Tspoem1Vpl
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.27114,720,188 - 114,730,450 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl7114,720,188 - 114,730,450 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx7116,467,236 - 116,477,482 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.07118,693,096 - 118,703,201 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.07118,662,565 - 118,672,671 (+)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.07124,460,358 - 124,470,610 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl7124,460,358 - 124,470,609 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.07124,449,361 - 124,459,090 (+)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.47121,597,084 - 121,599,342 (+)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.17121,631,313 - 121,633,572 (+)NCBI
Celera7111,031,561 - 111,041,788 (+)NCBICelera
RH 3.4 Map7906.4RGD
Cytogenetic Map7q34NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(+)-dexrazoxane  (ISO)
(1->4)-beta-D-glucan  (ISO)
(S)-nicotine  (ISO)
1,2-dichloroethane  (ISO)
1,2-dimethylhydrazine  (ISO)
1-hydroxymidazolam  (EXP)
1-naphthyl isothiocyanate  (EXP)
17beta-estradiol  (EXP,ISO)
2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether  (ISO)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
2,4,6-trinitrotoluene  (EXP)
2,4-dinitrotoluene  (EXP)
2,6-dinitrotoluene  (EXP)
3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl  (EXP)
3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9,10,10,10-heptadecafluoro-1-decanol  (ISO)
4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane  (EXP)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (ISO)
4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide  (ISO)
5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine  (ISO)
5-fluorouracil  (ISO)
6-propyl-2-thiouracil  (EXP)
7,12-dimethyltetraphene  (EXP)
acetamide  (EXP)
acrylamide  (EXP)
Actein  (EXP)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (ISO)
allethrin  (EXP)
alpidem  (EXP)
amitrole  (EXP)
ammonium chloride  (EXP)
amphetamine  (EXP)
aristolochic acid A  (ISO)
Aroclor 1254  (ISO)
arsenite(3-)  (ISO)
atrazine  (EXP)
atropine  (EXP)
benzo[a]pyrene  (ISO)
bifenthrin  (EXP,ISO)
bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (EXP,ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
bisphenol F  (ISO)
butan-1-ol  (ISO)
Butylparaben  (EXP)
cadmium atom  (ISO)
cadmium dichloride  (ISO)
carbon nanotube  (ISO)
carbonyl sulfide  (EXP)
chloropicrin  (ISO)
chromium(6+)  (ISO)
cisplatin  (ISO)
clofibrate  (ISO)
cobalt dichloride  (ISO)
copper atom  (EXP)
copper(0)  (EXP)
corticosterone  (EXP)
Cuprizon  (EXP)
cyclosporin A  (ISO)
cyhalothrin  (EXP)
cypermethrin  (EXP)
cytarabine  (ISO)
diazepam  (ISO)
dibutyl phthalate  (EXP)
diethylstilbestrol  (EXP)
dorsomorphin  (ISO)
doxorubicin  (ISO)
entinostat  (ISO)
ethanol  (ISO)
ezogabine  (EXP)
fenvalerate  (EXP)
flufenacet  (EXP)
flumazenil  (ISO)
flutamide  (EXP)
folic acid  (ISO)
fumonisin B1  (ISO)
furan  (EXP)
genistein  (ISO)
gentamycin  (EXP)
glafenine  (EXP)
heptachlor  (EXP)
Heptachlor epoxide  (EXP)
hydralazine  (ISO)
hydrogen peroxide  (ISO)
imidacloprid  (ISO)
isobutanol  (ISO)
ivermectin  (ISO)
ketamine  (EXP)
L-ascorbic acid  (EXP)
lead(0)  (ISO)
lipopolysaccharide  (ISO)
methimazole  (EXP)
methylmercury chloride  (ISO)
midazolam  (EXP,ISO)
mifepristone  (EXP)
mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (ISO)
N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium  (ISO)
N-methyl-N-nitrosourea  (EXP)
N-nitrosodiethylamine  (EXP)
N-nitrosodimethylamine  (EXP)
nicotine  (ISO)
oxaliplatin  (ISO)
oxybenzone  (EXP)
p-menthan-3-ol  (ISO)
panobinostat  (ISO)
paracetamol  (ISO)
pentachlorophenol  (ISO)
perfluorooctane-1-sulfonic acid  (EXP,ISO)
permethrin  (ISO)
phenobarbital  (ISO)
phosgene  (ISO)
picoxystrobin  (EXP,ISO)
pirinixic acid  (EXP,ISO)
PK-11195  (EXP,ISO)
porphyrins  (EXP)
procymidone  (EXP)
protoporphyrin  (EXP)
pyrethrins  (EXP)
quinolines  (EXP,ISO)
resveratrol  (EXP,ISO)
rotenone  (ISO)
sarin  (EXP)
SB 431542  (ISO)
sodium arsenite  (ISO)
sodium dichromate  (EXP)
Soman  (EXP)
streptozocin  (EXP)
sulfadimethoxine  (EXP)
testosterone enanthate  (EXP)
tetrachloromethane  (ISO)
tetracycline  (ISO)
thapsigargin  (ISO)
thioacetamide  (EXP)
triadimefon  (EXP)
tributylstannane  (EXP)
trichostatin A  (ISO)
triclosan  (ISO)
triphenyl phosphate  (EXP,ISO)
tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate  (ISO)
tropan-3alpha-yl 3-hydroxy-2-phenylpropanoate  (EXP)
tungsten  (ISO)
tunicamycin  (ISO)
valproic acid  (EXP,ISO)
vancomycin  (ISO)
vinclozolin  (EXP)
vorinostat  (ISO)
ziram  (EXP)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
adrenal gland development  (IEP)
behavioral response to pain  (IMP)
cellular hypotonic response  (IEP)
cellular response to lipopolysaccharide  (IEP)
cellular response to zinc ion  (IEP)
chloride transport  (IDA)
cholesterol homeostasis  (IMP)
contact inhibition  (IDA)
establishment of protein localization to mitochondrion  (ISO)
glial cell migration  (IDA)
lipid transport  (IEA)
maintenance of protein location in mitochondrion  (ISO)
monoatomic ion transport  (IDA)
negative regulation of ATP metabolic process  (ISO)
negative regulation of autophagy of mitochondrion  (ISO)
negative regulation of corticosterone secretion  (IMP)
negative regulation of glial cell proliferation  (IDA)
negative regulation of mitochondrion organization  (ISO)
negative regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process  (IDA)
negative regulation of protein ubiquitination  (ISO)
negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor production  (IDA)
peripheral nervous system axon regeneration  (IEP)
positive regulation of apoptotic process  (IMP)
positive regulation of calcium ion transport  (IMP)
positive regulation of glial cell proliferation  (IDA)
positive regulation of mitochondrial depolarization  (IDA)
positive regulation of programmed necrotic cell death  (IMP)
positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process  (IDA,ISO)
regulation of steroid biosynthetic process  (IMP)
response to acetylcholine  (IMP)
response to axon injury  (IEP)
response to manganese ion  (IEP)
response to pain  (IEP)
response to progesterone  (IEP)
response to testosterone  (IEP)
response to vitamin B1  (IEP)
response to xenobiotic stimulus  (IEP)
steroid biosynthetic process  (IMP)

Cellular Component

Molecular Function

Molecular Pathway Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
Phenotype Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Mammalian Phenotype

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Acute and repeated swim stress effects on peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in the rat hippocampus, adrenal, and kidney. Avital A, etal., Neuropsychopharmacology. 2001 Nov;25(5):669-78.
2. The peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor is involved in control of Ca2+-induced permeability transition pore opening in rat brain mitochondria. Azarashvili T, etal., Cell Calcium. 2007 Jul;42(1):27-39. Epub 2006 Dec 15.
3. Modulation of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in female rat genital organs by various gonadal steroids. Bar-Ami S, etal., Life Sci. 1994;54(25):1965-75.
4. Synthesis, delivery and regulation of eukaryotic heme and Fe-S cluster cofactors. Barupala DP, etal., Arch Biochem Biophys. 2016 Feb 15;592:60-75. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2016.01.010. Epub 2016 Jan 16.
5. Structure of the rat gene encoding the mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor. Casalotti SO, etal., Gene 1992 Nov 16;121(2):377-82.
6. Peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligands: mitochondrial transmembrane potential depolarization and apoptosis induction in rat C6 glioma cells. Chelli B, etal., Biochem Pharmacol. 2004 Jul 1;68(1):125-34.
7. Cholesterol transport, peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, and steroidogenesis in aging Leydig cells. Culty M, etal., J Androl. 2002 May-Jun;23(3):439-47.
8. The influence of clozapine treatment and other antipsychotics on the 18 kDa translocator protein, formerly named the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor, and steroid production. Danovich L, etal., Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008 Jan;18(1):24-33. Epub 2007 Jun 11.
9. Increased "peripheral-type" benzodiazepine receptor sites and mRNA in thalamus of thiamine-deficient rats. Desjardins P, etal., Neurochem Int. 1999 Nov;35(5):363-9.
10. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
11. Rat ISS GO annotations from GOA human gene data--August 2006 GOA data from the GO Consortium
12. Upregulation of 'peripheral-type' benzodiazepine receptors in the globus pallidus in a sub-acute rat model of manganese neurotoxicity. Hazell AS, etal., Neurosci Lett. 2003 Sep 25;349(1):13-6.
13. Spinal translocator protein (TSPO) modulates pain behavior in rats with CFA-induced monoarthritis. Hernstadt H, etal., Brain Res. 2009 Aug 25;1286:42-52. Epub 2009 Jun 23.
14. Effects on free radical generation by ligands of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor in cultured neural cells. Jayakumar AR, etal., J Neurochem. 2002 Dec;83(5):1226-34.
15. Axonal injury-dependent induction of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor in small-diameter adult rat primary sensory neurons. Karchewski LA, etal., Eur J Neurosci. 2004 Aug;20(3):671-83.
16. Hypoosmotic swelling affects zinc homeostasis in cultured rat astrocytes. Kruczek C, etal., Glia. 2009 Jan 1;57(1):79-92.
17. Involvement of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor in the oxidative stress, death-signaling pathways, and renal injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion. Kunduzova OR, etal., J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004 Aug;15(8):2152-60.
18. An association study between two missense variations of the benzodiazepine receptor (peripheral) gene and schizophrenia in a Japanese sample. Kurumaji A, etal., J Neural Transm 2000;107(4):491-500.
19. High-density rat radiation hybrid maps containing over 24,000 SSLPs, genes, and ESTs provide a direct link to the rat genome sequence. Kwitek AE, etal., Genome Res. 2004 Apr;14(4):750-7
20. Regulation of the expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors and their endogenous ligands during rat sciatic nerve degeneration and regeneration: a role for PBR in neurosteroidogenesis. Lacor P, etal., Brain Res. 1999 Jan 2;815(1):70-80.
21. Enhanced expression of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) and its endogenous ligand octadecaneuropeptide (ODN) in the regenerating adult rat sciatic nerve. Lacor P, etal., Neurosci Lett. 1996 Dec 6;220(1):61-5.
22. Direct interactions of androgenic/anabolic steroids with the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor in rat brain: implications for the psychological and physiological manifestations of androgenic/anabolic steroid abuse. Masonis AE and McCarthy MP, J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1996 Aug;58(5-6):551-5.
23. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
24. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
25. Functional characterization and expression of PBR in rat gastric mucosa: stimulation of chloride secretion by PBR ligands. Ostuni MA, etal., Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2004 Jun;286(6):G1069-80. Epub 2004 Jan 15.
26. Overexpression of translocator protein in inflammatory bowel disease: Potential diagnostic and treatment value. Ostuni MA, etal., Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2010 Mar 10.
27. TSPO mutations in rats and a human polymorphism impair the rate of steroid synthesis. Owen DR, etal., Biochem J. 2017 Nov 21;474(23):3985-3999. doi: 10.1042/BCJ20170648.
28. Targeted disruption of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor gene inhibits steroidogenesis in the R2C Leydig tumor cell line. Papadopoulos V, etal., J Biol Chem. 1997 Dec 19;272(51):32129-35.
29. Adrenocortical responses to ACTH in neonatal rats: effect of hypoxia from birth on corticosterone, StAR, and PBR. Raff H, etal., Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2003 Jan;284(1):R78-85.
30. TSPO over-expression increases motility, transmigration and proliferation properties of C6 rat glioma cells. Rechichi M, etal., Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008 Feb;1782(2):118-25. Epub 2007 Dec 15.
31. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
32. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
33. TSPO targeted dendrimer imaging agent: synthesis, characterization, and cellular internalization. Samuelson LE, etal., Bioconjug Chem. 2009 Nov;20(11):2082-9.
34. Molecular cloning and expression of cDNA encoding a peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor. Sprengel R, etal., J Biol Chem 1989 Dec 5;264(34):20415-21.
35. Tentative Sequence Identification Numbers Tentative Sequence Data IDs. TIGR Gene Index, Rat Data
36. Involvement of benzodiazepine receptors in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases: evidence from activated microglial cells in vitro. Wilms H, etal., Neurobiol Dis. 2003 Dec;14(3):417-24.
37. Developmental expression of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor and the advent of steroidogenesis in rat adrenal glands. Zilz A, etal., Endocrinology. 1999 Feb;140(2):859-64.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:8889548   PMID:12530640   PMID:14651853   PMID:14962996   PMID:16026165   PMID:16099172   PMID:16239298   PMID:17540348   PMID:17555551   PMID:17674368   PMID:17893919   PMID:17959307  
PMID:18269350   PMID:18600420   PMID:18614015   PMID:19056867   PMID:19330384   PMID:19392661   PMID:19463096   PMID:19524125   PMID:20204676   PMID:20814674   PMID:20948513   PMID:21037200  
PMID:21062740   PMID:21209087   PMID:21889488   PMID:22348614   PMID:22816377   PMID:22984611   PMID:23345228   PMID:23525219   PMID:23554458   PMID:24050790   PMID:24877623   PMID:25470454  
PMID:26612465   PMID:27150077   PMID:27223627   PMID:27596950   PMID:27886206   PMID:29342117   PMID:29777199   PMID:31707350   PMID:33345973   PMID:34072449   PMID:34090124   PMID:37013248  
PMID:37408083   PMID:37717810  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.27114,720,188 - 114,730,450 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl7114,720,188 - 114,730,450 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx7116,467,236 - 116,477,482 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.07118,693,096 - 118,703,201 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.07118,662,565 - 118,672,671 (+)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.07124,460,358 - 124,470,610 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl7124,460,358 - 124,470,609 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.07124,449,361 - 124,459,090 (+)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.47121,597,084 - 121,599,342 (+)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.17121,631,313 - 121,633,572 (+)NCBI
Celera7111,031,561 - 111,041,788 (+)NCBICelera
RH 3.4 Map7906.4RGD
Cytogenetic Map7q34NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh382243,151,559 - 43,163,242 (+)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl2243,151,547 - 43,163,242 (+)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh372243,547,565 - 43,559,248 (+)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 362241,877,479 - 41,889,192 (+)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 342241,872,050 - 41,883,745NCBI
Celera2227,457,910 - 27,469,623 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map22q13.2NCBI
HuRef2226,505,727 - 26,517,455 (+)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_12243,507,104 - 43,518,509 (+)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.02243,632,715 - 43,644,077 (+)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm391583,447,774 - 83,458,404 (+)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl1583,447,793 - 83,458,404 (+)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm381583,563,573 - 83,574,203 (+)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl1583,563,592 - 83,574,203 (+)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv371583,394,003 - 83,404,633 (+)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv361583,391,377 - 83,401,962 (+)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera1585,689,315 - 85,701,021 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map15E1NCBI
cM Map1539.4NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_00495541328,308,658 - 28,315,075 (+)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_00495541328,309,105 - 28,315,075 (+)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan12255,667,318 - 55,678,778 (+)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v02224,034,918 - 24,046,370 (+)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.12242,233,186 - 42,244,930 (+)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl2242,233,619 - 42,244,930 (+)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.11022,388,498 - 22,399,329 (-)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl1022,274,405 - 22,399,297 (-)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha1022,325,190 - 22,336,049 (-)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.01023,132,949 - 23,143,978 (-)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl1023,132,954 - 23,135,891 (-)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.11022,852,287 - 22,863,109 (-)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.01023,171,467 - 23,182,483 (-)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.01023,347,120 - 23,357,948 (-)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_0244049455,984,991 - 5,987,864 (-)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_004936718992,301 - 995,995 (+)EnsemblSpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0 Ensembl
SpeTri2.0NW_004936718992,301 - 995,172 (+)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl55,723,190 - 5,735,131 (-)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.155,723,190 - 5,735,097 (-)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.253,145,792 - 3,157,669 (-)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.11925,678,602 - 25,690,556 (+)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl1925,686,981 - 25,690,768 (+)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_02366604599,748,097 - 99,760,895 (-)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_0046247525,814,784 - 5,820,141 (-)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_0046247525,814,784 - 5,820,250 (-)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in Tspo
86 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:185
Count of miRNA genes:140
Interacting mature miRNAs:153
Prediction methods:Microtar, Miranda, Rnahybrid
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (http://mirgate.bioinfo.cnio.es/).
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
634336Anxrr17Anxiety related response QTL 173.66locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)number of entries into a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000960)7924703115097879Rat
61357Bp38Blood pressure QTL 381.60.052arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)741333674119109060Rat
1300179Kidm5Kidney mass QTL 53.51kidney mass (VT:0002707)left kidney wet weight (CMO:0000083)743747012135012528Rat
631504Cm27Cardiac mass QTL 273.45heart left ventricle mass (VT:0007031)heart left ventricle wet weight (CMO:0000071)744421311118198041Rat
70173Niddm19Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 194.330.00005blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level area under curve (AUC) (CMO:0000350)764002457135012528Rat
631540Bw9Body weight QTL 94.5body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)769736226117455174Rat
634331Pia17Pristane induced arthritis QTL 174.7joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)arthritic paw count (CMO:0001460)773829340130221005Rat
7411654Foco25Food consumption QTL 259.30.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)775918751120918751Rat
7411607Foco15Food consumption QTL 150.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)775918751120918751Rat
1331728Bp214Blood pressure QTL 2142.825arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)780221299124373579Rat
1331768Kidm10Kidney mass QTL 104.62096kidney mass (VT:0002707)left kidney wet weight (CMO:0000083)780221299125221299Rat
2317052Aia17Adjuvant induced arthritis QTL 172.13joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)left rear ankle joint diameter (CMO:0002149)781737938126737938Rat
634322Bw12Body weight QTL 120body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)783153392128153392Rat
1358891Bp265Blood pressure QTL 2652.21arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)783591953134666232Rat
1358914Bp266Blood pressure QTL 266arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)783591953134666232Rat
71114Niddm14Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 144.5blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)plasma glucose level (CMO:0000042)784257275129257275Rat
2298475Eau6Experimental allergic uveoretinitis QTL 60.0029uvea integrity trait (VT:0010551)experimental autoimmune uveitis score (CMO:0001504)784257275129257275Rat
1558655Swd4Spike wave discharge measurement QTL 43.680.0002brain electrophysiology trait (VT:0010557)brain spike-and-wave discharge severity grade (CMO:0001988)786983365131983365Rat
1549899Stresp8Stress response QTL 84.370.0008stress-related behavior trait (VT:0010451)defensive burying duration (CMO:0001961)790482196135012528Rat
2299163Iddm34Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 342.71blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)age at onset/diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (CMO:0001140)791281130135012528Rat
631687Hcas1Hepatocarcinoma susceptibility QTL 13.90.001liver integrity trait (VT:0010547)liver tumorous lesion volume to total liver volume ratio (CMO:0001082)791412594129807172Rat
2313102Bmd79Bone mineral density QTL 792.30.0001tibia mineral mass (VT:1000283)total volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001728)794811085116738842Rat
1357336Gluco6Glucose level QTL 63.4blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)serum glucose level (CMO:0000543)794811326116294265Rat
731176Glom5Glomerulus QTL 52.50.0035kidney glomerulus morphology trait (VT:0005325)count of superficial glomeruli not directly contacting the kidney surface (CMO:0001002)796670164135012528Rat
1331731Bp216Blood pressure QTL 2162.851arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)7102297359133492884Rat
70159Bp61Blood pressure QTL 610.0001arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)7103146217116738842Rat
731174Uae23Urinary albumin excretion QTL 232.40.0042urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin excretion rate (CMO:0000757)7104603555135012528Rat
2306821Bp335Blood pressure QTL 3350.001arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)7106571501135012528Rat
631663Bw6Body weight QTL 63.4body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)7111075573134976056Rat
1300112Bp183Blood pressure QTL 1833.51arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)blood pressure time series experimental set point of the baroreceptor response (CMO:0002593)7111182207135012528Rat
1331748Bp215Blood pressure QTL 2154.043arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)7112308254133492884Rat
1357339Stl14Serum triglyceride level QTL 143.450.0001blood triglyceride amount (VT:0002644)serum triglyceride level (CMO:0000360)7112729683133492707Rat

Markers in Region
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.27114,727,471 - 114,727,581 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2935,133,666 - 35,133,728 (-)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2910,775,520 - 10,775,580 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.07124,467,632 - 124,467,741NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.07124,456,112 - 124,456,221UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.47121,596,365 - 121,596,476RGDRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.47121,596,366 - 121,596,475UniSTSRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.17121,630,595 - 121,630,706RGD
Celera7111,038,810 - 111,038,919UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map7909.7RGD
RH 3.4 Map7909.7UniSTS
RH 2.0 Map7687.3RGD
Cytogenetic Map7q34UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.27114,727,449 - 114,727,593 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.07124,467,610 - 124,467,753NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.07124,456,090 - 124,456,233UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.47121,596,343 - 121,596,487RGDRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.47121,596,344 - 121,596,487UniSTSRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.17121,630,573 - 121,630,717RGD
Celera7111,038,788 - 111,038,931UniSTS
RH 2.0 Map7690.3RGD
Cytogenetic Map7q34UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.27114,727,444 - 114,727,640 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.07124,467,605 - 124,467,800NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.07124,456,085 - 124,456,280UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.47121,596,338 - 121,596,534RGDRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.47121,596,339 - 121,596,534UniSTSRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.17121,630,568 - 121,630,764RGD
Celera7111,038,783 - 111,038,978UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map7909.7UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map7909.7RGD
RH 2.0 Map7686.4RGD
SHRSP x BN Map766.9399RGD
FHH x ACI Map753.35RGD
Cytogenetic Map7q34UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.27114,730,161 - 114,730,361 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.07124,470,322 - 124,470,521NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.07124,458,802 - 124,459,001UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.47121,599,056 - 121,599,255UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera7111,041,500 - 111,041,699UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map7q34UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.27114,730,415 - 114,730,515 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.07124,470,576 - 124,470,675NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.07124,459,056 - 124,459,155UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.47121,599,310 - 121,599,409UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera7111,041,754 - 111,041,853UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map7906.4UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map7q34UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.27114,728,323 - 114,729,065 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.07124,468,484 - 124,469,225NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.07124,456,964 - 124,457,705UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.47121,597,218 - 121,597,959UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera7111,039,662 - 111,040,403UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map7q34UniSTS

Genetic Models
This gene Tspo is modified in the following models/strains:


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
Medium 3 43 40 24 19 24 2 2 31 35 11 2
Low 17 17 17 6 9 74 4 6 6
Below cutoff


RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000014089   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000014089
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl7114,720,188 - 114,730,450 (+)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl7124,460,358 - 124,470,609 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_012515   ⟹   NP_036647
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.27114,720,221 - 114,730,450 (+)NCBI
Rnor_6.07124,460,358 - 124,470,610 (+)NCBI
Rnor_5.07124,449,361 - 124,459,090 (+)NCBI
RGSC_v3.47121,597,084 - 121,599,342 (+)RGD
Celera7111,031,561 - 111,041,788 (+)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_039078393   ⟹   XP_038934321
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.27114,720,188 - 114,730,450 (+)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_039078394   ⟹   XP_038934322
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.27114,726,355 - 114,730,450 (+)NCBI
Protein Sequences
Protein RefSeqs NP_036647 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  XP_038934321 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  XP_038934322 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
GenBank Protein AAA41862 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAA41978 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  EDM15622 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
Ensembl Protein ENSRNOP00000014089
GenBank Protein P16257 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_036647   ⟸   NM_012515
- UniProtKB: P16257 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A6HTA0 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000014089   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000014089
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_038934321   ⟸   XM_039078393
- Peptide Label: isoform X1
- UniProtKB: P16257 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A6HTA0 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_038934322   ⟸   XM_039078394
- Peptide Label: isoform X1
- UniProtKB: P16257 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A6HTA0 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)

Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P16257-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P16257 1-169 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

RGD ID:13695550
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R6075
Type:initiation region
Description:translocator protein
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database, http://epd.vital-it.ch/)
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.07124,460,384 - 124,460,444EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:2228 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-32598 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000010549 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000014089 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Gene3D-CATH 1.20.1260.100 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro TspO/MBR-related_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  TspO_MBR UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:24230 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  PTHR10057:SF5 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam TspO_MBR UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Tspo PhenoGen
PIRSF PBR UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000010549 RatGTEx
TIGR TC217016
  P16257 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2008-02-15 Tspo  translocator protein  Bzrp  benzodiazepine receptor, peripheral  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2005-11-17 Bzrp  benzodiazepine receptor, peripheral      Name updated 1299863 APPROVED
2002-06-10 Bzrp  Benzodiazepin receptor (peripheral)      Symbol and Name status set to approved 70586 APPROVED

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_function binds peripheral-type benzodiazepine ligands and isoquinoline carboxamides 634672
gene_transcript comprised of four exons spanning about 10 kb 634671