Grk2 (G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Grk2 (G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Grk2
Name: G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2
RGD ID: 2062
Description: Enables several functions, including opioid receptor binding activity; protein kinase activity; and scaffold protein binding activity. Involved in several processes, including blood vessel diameter maintenance; negative regulation of G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway; and negative regulation of protein phosphorylation. Located in several cellular components, including basolateral plasma membrane; caveola; and dendrite. Is active in glutamatergic synapse; postsynaptic density; and presynapse. Used to study hyperglycemia; impotence; and limb ischemia. Biomarker of Parkinson's disease; congestive heart failure; hypertension; and portal hypertension. Orthologous to human GRK2 (G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2); PARTICIPATES IN dopamine signaling pathway via D2 family of receptors; G protein mediated signaling pathway; somatostatin signaling pathway; INTERACTS WITH 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether; 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine; 2,4-dinitrotoluene.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Previously known as: Adrbk1; adrenergic receptor kinase, beta 1; adrenergic, beta, receptor kinase 1; BARK1; beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1; beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 beta ARK1; beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1, beta ARK1; beta-ARK-1; G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2; G-protein-linked receptor kinase (beta adrenergic receptor kinase 1); GRK-2
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Is Marker For: Strains:   SHHF  
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr81211,010,259 - 211,031,013 (-)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.21201,580,823 - 201,601,580 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1201,581,480 - 201,601,582 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx1209,932,926 - 209,953,677 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.01217,026,270 - 217,047,026 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.01209,717,288 - 209,738,044 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.01219,536,220 - 219,544,329 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1219,536,220 - 219,544,328 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.01226,406,333 - 226,414,442 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41206,873,002 - 206,892,868 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11207,026,454 - 207,034,564 (-)NCBI
Celera1199,125,797 - 199,145,728 (-)NCBICelera
RH 3.4 Map11560.2RGD
Cytogenetic Map1q43NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
cardiac muscle contraction  (IEA,ISO)
cellular response to catecholamine stimulus  (IEP)
cellular response to chemokine  (IDA)
cellular response to epidermal growth factor stimulus  (IMP)
cellular response to glucose stimulus  (IDA)
cellular response to organic cyclic compound  (IEP)
cellular response to phorbol 13-acetate 12-myristate  (IEP)
cellular response to rapamycin  (IEP)
desensitization of G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway  (IBA,IC,IDA,IEA,IMP,ISO)
follicle-stimulating hormone signaling pathway  (IDA)
G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway  (IBA,IDA,IEA,IEP,ISO)
heart development  (IEA,ISO)
maintenance of protein location in nucleus  (IMP)
negative regulation of adenylate cyclase-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway  (IMP)
negative regulation of apoptotic process  (IMP)
negative regulation of cellular response to insulin stimulus  (IMP)
negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity  (IMP)
negative regulation of G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway  (IDA)
negative regulation of glucose import  (IMP)
negative regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation  (IMP)
negative regulation of peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation  (IMP)
negative regulation of relaxation of smooth muscle  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
negative regulation of striated muscle contraction  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of the force of heart contraction by chemical signal  (IEA,ISO)
oligodendrocyte differentiation  (IEP,IMP)
positive regulation of catecholamine secretion  (IDA)
positive regulation of excitatory postsynaptic potential  (IMP)
positive regulation of fibroblast proliferation  (IMP)
positive regulation of interleukin-6 production  (IMP)
positive regulation of muscle cell apoptotic process  (IMP)
positive regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell proliferation  (IMP)
positive regulation of vasoconstriction  (IMP)
protein phosphorylation  (IDA,IMP)
receptor internalization  (IEA,ISO)
regulation of the force of heart contraction  (IBA,IEA,ISO)
response to caloric restriction  (IEP)
response to hydrogen peroxide  (IEP)
response to leptin  (IEP)
response to muscle activity  (IEP)
response to organic cyclic compound  (IDA)
response to oxidative stress  (IDA)
symbiont entry into host cell  (IEA,ISO)
tachykinin receptor signaling pathway  (IEA,ISO)
vasodilation  (IMP)
viral genome replication  (IEA,ISO)

Cellular Component


References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Altered expression and subcellular distribution of GRK subtypes in the dopamine-depleted rat basal ganglia is not normalized by l-DOPA treatment. Ahmed MR, etal., J Neurochem. 2008 Mar;104(6):1622-36. Epub 2007 Nov 7.
2. The myocardial beta-adrenergic system in spontaneously hypertensive heart failure (SHHF) rats. Anderson KM, etal., Hypertension. 1999 Jan;33(1 Pt 2):402-7.
3. Impaired neutrophil chemotaxis in sepsis associates with GRK expression and inhibition of actin assembly and tyrosine phosphorylation. Arraes SM, etal., Blood. 2006 Nov 1;108(9):2906-13. Epub 2006 Jul 18.
4. The G-protein-coupled receptor kinases beta ARK1 and beta ARK2 are widely distributed at synapses in rat brain. Arriza JL, etal., J Neurosci 1992 Oct;12(10):4045-55.
5. Hydrogen peroxide causes uncoupling of dopamine D1-like receptors from G proteins via a mechanism involving protein kinase C and G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. Asghar M, etal., Free Radic Biol Med. 2006 Jan 1;40(1):13-20. Epub 2005 Sep 8.
6. Opsin 3 and 4 mediate light-induced pulmonary vasorelaxation that is potentiated by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 inhibition. Barreto Ortiz S, etal., Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2018 Jan 1;314(1):L93-L106. doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00091.2017. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
7. Effects of the dopamine D2 allosteric modulator, PAOPA, on the expression of GRK2, arrestin-3, ERK1/2, and on receptor internalization. Basu D, etal., PLoS One. 2013 Aug 6;8(8):e70736. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070736. Print 2013.
8. The physiology, signaling, and pharmacology of dopamine receptors. Beaulieu JM and Gainetdinov RR, Pharmacol Rev. 2011 Mar;63(1):182-217. doi: 10.1124/pr.110.002642. Epub 2011 Feb 8.
9. GRK2 Constitutively Governs Peripheral Delta Opioid Receptor Activity. Brackley AD, etal., Cell Rep. 2016 Sep 6;16(10):2686-2698. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2016.07.084. Epub 2016 Aug 25.
10. Identification of a signaling cascade that maintains constitutive d-opioid receptor incompetence in peripheral sensory neurons. Brackley AD, etal., J Biol Chem. 2017 May 26;292(21):8762-8772. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M117.776799. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
11. ß1-adrenergic receptor and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) reciprocal downregulation influences cardiac hypertrophic response and progression to heart failure: protective role of S1PR1 cardiac gene therapy. Cannavo A, etal., Circulation. 2013 Oct 8;128(15):1612-22. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.002659. Epub 2013 Aug 22.
12. ß Adrenergic Receptor Kinase C-Terminal Peptide Gene-Therapy Improves ß2-Adrenergic Receptor-Dependent Neoangiogenesis after Hindlimb Ischemia. Cannavo A, etal., J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2016 Feb;356(2):503-13. doi: 10.1124/jpet.115.228411. Epub 2015 Nov 24.
13. Prodeath signaling of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 in cardiac myocytes after ischemic stress occurs via extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent heat shock protein 90-mediated mitochondrial targeting. Chen M, etal., Circ Res. 2013 Apr 12;112(8):1121-34. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.112.300754. Epub 2013 Mar 6.
14. Desensitization of G-protein-coupled receptors induces vascular hypocontractility in response to norepinephrine in the mesenteric arteries of cirrhotic patients and rats. Chen W, etal., Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2013 Jun;12(3):295-304.
15. G protein coupled receptor kinase-2 upregulation causes ¿-opioid receptor desensitization in diabetic heart. Chen X, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017 Jan 22;482(4):658-664. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.11.090. Epub 2016 Nov 16.
16. GRK2/ß-arrestin mediates arginine vasopressin-induced cardiac fibroblast proliferation. Chen Y, etal., Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2017 Feb;44(2):285-293. doi: 10.1111/1440-1681.12696.
17. Does GRK-ß arrestin machinery work as a "switch on" for GPR17-mediated activation of intracellular signaling pathways? Daniele S, etal., Cell Signal. 2014 Jun;26(6):1310-25. doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2014.02.016. Epub 2014 Mar 5.
18. Dexmedetomidine alleviates rat post-ischemia induced allodynia through GRK2 upregulation in superior cervical ganglia. Dong J, etal., Auton Neurosci. 2015 Jan;187:76-83. doi: 10.1016/j.autneu.2014.10.024. Epub 2014 Nov 1.
19. GRK mythology: G-protein receptor kinases in cardiovascular disease. Dorn GW 2nd J Mol Med (Berl). 2009 May;87(5):455-63. Epub 2009 Feb 20.
20. Glytan decreases portal pressure via mesentery vasoconstriction in portal hypertensive rats. Du QH, etal., World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Nov 28;20(44):16674-82. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i44.16674.
21. Beta-adrenergic stimulation and myocardial function in the failing heart. El-Armouche A and Eschenhagen T, Heart Fail Rev. 2009 Dec;14(4):225-41.
22. Transient decrease in nociceptor GRK2 expression produces long-term enhancement in inflammatory pain. Ferrari LF, etal., Neuroscience. 2012 Oct 11;222:392-403. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.07.004. Epub 2012 Jul 13.
23. Decreased immunodensities of micro-opioid receptors, receptor kinases GRK 2/6 and beta-arrestin-2 in postmortem brains of opiate addicts. Ferrer-Alcón M, etal., Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2004 Feb 5;121(1-2):114-22. doi: 10.1016/j.molbrainres.2003.11.009.
24. The ubiquitin ligase Mdm2 controls oligodendrocyte maturation by intertwining mTOR with G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 in the regulation of GPR17 receptor desensitization. Fumagalli M, etal., Glia. 2015 Dec;63(12):2327-39. doi: 10.1002/glia.22896. Epub 2015 Jul 31.
25. ß-Arrestin 1 and 2 and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 expression in pituitary adenomas: role in the regulation of response to somatostatin analogue treatment in patients with acromegaly. Gatto F, etal., Endocrinology. 2013 Dec;154(12):4715-25. doi: 10.1210/en.2013-1672. Epub 2013 Oct 29.
26. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
27. Rat ISS GO annotations from GOA human gene data--August 2006 GOA data from the GO Consortium
28. G-Protein-coupled receptor kinase activity in hypertension : increased vascular and lymphocyte G-protein receptor kinase-2 protein expression. Gros R, etal., Hypertension. 2000 Jan;35(1 Pt 1):38-42.
29. Biventricular differences in ß-adrenergic receptor signaling following burn injury. Guillory AN, etal., PLoS One. 2017 Dec 12;12(12):e0189527. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189527. eCollection 2017.
30. Molecular properties of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Haga T Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci. 2013;89(6):226-56.
31. Cardiac beta ARK1 inhibition prolongs survival and augments beta blocker therapy in a mouse model of severe heart failure. Harding VB, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2001 May 8;98(10):5809-14. Epub 2001 May 1.
32. Prolonged Morphine Treatment Alters Expression and Plasma Membrane Distribution of ß-Adrenergic Receptors and Some Other Components of Their Signaling System in Rat Cerebral Cortex. Hejnova L, etal., J Mol Neurosci. 2017 Dec;63(3-4):364-376. doi: 10.1007/s12031-017-0987-9. Epub 2017 Oct 28.
33. Vascular dysfunction in human and rat cirrhosis: role of receptor-desensitizing and calcium-sensitizing proteins. Hennenberg M, etal., Hepatology. 2007 Feb;45(2):495-506.
34. Endothelin-1 suppresses insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake via GPCR kinase 2 in skeletal muscle cells. Horinouchi T, etal., Br J Pharmacol. 2016 Mar;173(6):1018-32. doi: 10.1111/bph.13406. Epub 2016 Feb 15.
35. Convergence of G protein-coupled receptor and S-nitrosylation signaling determines the outcome to cardiac ischemic injury. Huang ZM, etal., Sci Signal. 2013 Oct 29;6(299):ra95. doi: 10.1126/scisignal.2004225.
36. G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)2 is a key negative regulator of itch: L-glutamine attenuates itch via a rapid induction of GRK2 in an ERK-dependent way. Im YN, etal., J Invest Dermatol. 2018 Mar 9. pii: S0022-202X(18)30220-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jid.2018.02.036.
37. GRK2 Up-Regulation Creates a Positive Feedback Loop for Catecholamine Production in Chromaffin Cells. Jafferjee M, etal., Mol Endocrinol. 2016 Mar;30(3):372-81. doi: 10.1210/me.2015-1305. Epub 2016 Feb 5.
38. Small molecule disruption of G protein ß¿ subunit signaling reprograms human macrophage phenotype and prevents autoimmune myocarditis in rats. Karuppagounder V, etal., PLoS One. 2018 Jul 19;13(7):e0200697. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0200697. eCollection 2018.
39. The GRK2 Promoter Is Regulated by Early-Growth Response Transcription Factor EGR-1. Klenke S, etal., Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2018 Jun 15. doi: 10.1111/bcpt.13055.
40. High-density rat radiation hybrid maps containing over 24,000 SSLPs, genes, and ESTs provide a direct link to the rat genome sequence. Kwitek AE, etal., Genome Res. 2004 Apr;14(4):750-7
41. Parathyroid hormone signaling in bone and kidney. Lee M and Partridge NC, Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2009 Jul;18(4):298-302. doi: 10.1097/MNH.0b013e32832c2264.
42. Downregulation of Spinal G Protein-Coupled Kinase 2 Abolished the Antiallodynic Effect of Electroacupuncture. Liu H, etal., Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:848603. doi: 10.1155/2015/848603. Epub 2015 Apr 29.
43. Caveolin 1 and G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase-2 Coregulate Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity in Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells. Liu S, etal., Am J Pathol. 2017 Apr;187(4):896-907. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2016.11.017. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
44. A crucial role for GRK2 in regulation of endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase function in portal hypertension. Liu S, etal., Nat Med. 2005 Sep;11(9):952-8. Epub 2005 Sep 4.
45. Decreased expression and activity of G-protein-coupled receptor kinases in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Lombardi MS, etal., FASEB J. 1999 Apr;13(6):715-25.
46. A Single Intrathecal or Intraperitoneal Injection of CB2 Receptor Agonist Attenuates Bone Cancer Pain and Induces a Time-Dependent Modification of GRK2. Lu C, etal., Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2017 Jan;37(1):101-109. doi: 10.1007/s10571-016-0349-0. Epub 2016 Mar 2.
47. Modulation of adrenal catecholamine secretion by in vivo gene transfer and manipulation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 activity. Lymperopoulos A, etal., Mol Ther. 2008 Feb;16(2):302-7. doi: 10.1038/ Epub 2007 Nov 27.
48. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 and beta-arrestins are recruited to FSH receptor in stimulated rat primary Sertoli cells. Marion S, etal., J Endocrinol. 2006 Aug;190(2):341-50.
49. Tempol reduces oxidative stress and restores renal dopamine D1-like receptor- G protein coupling and function in hyperglycemic rats. Marwaha A and Lokhandwala MF, Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006 Jul;291(1):F58-66. Epub 2006 Feb 14.
50. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
51. beta2- and beta1-Adrenoceptor Expression Exhibits a Common Regulatory Pattern With GRK2 and GRK5 in Human and Animal Models of Cardiovascular Diseases. Monto F, etal., J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2015 Nov;66(5):478-86. doi: 10.1097/FJC.0000000000000299.
52. Differential regulation of ß2-adrenoceptor and adenosine A2B receptor signalling by GRK and arrestin proteins in arterial smooth muscle. Nash CA, etal., Cell Signal. 2018 Nov;51:86-98. doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2018.07.013. Epub 2018 Jul 31.
53. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
54. Hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy: relation to beta-adrenergic receptor kinase-1 (betaARK1) in peripheral lymphocytes. Park SJ, etal., J Hypertens. 2004 May;22(5):1025-32.
55. Leptin-induced downregulation of the rat hippocampal somatostatinergic system may potentiate its anorexigenic effects. Perianes-Cachero A, etal., Neurochem Int. 2012 Dec;61(8):1385-96. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2012.09.019. Epub 2012 Oct 13.
56. Beta-arrestin- and G protein receptor kinase-mediated calcium-sensing receptor desensitization. Pi M, etal., Mol Endocrinol. 2005 Apr;19(4):1078-87. Epub 2005 Jan 6.
57. GRK2-mediated inhibition of adrenergic and dopaminergic signaling in right ventricular hypertrophy: therapeutic implications in pulmonary hypertension. Piao L, etal., Circulation. 2012 Dec 11;126(24):2859-69. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.109868. Epub 2012 Nov 2.
58. KEGG Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
59. PID Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import Pathway Interaction Database annotations from NCI into RGD
60. Radiofrequency Renal Denervation Protects the Ischemic Heart via Inhibition of GRK2 and Increased Nitric Oxide Signaling. Polhemus DJ, etal., Circ Res. 2016 Jul 22;119(3):470-80. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.115.308278. Epub 2016 Jun 13.
61. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
62. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
63. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a Rho-activated scaffold protein for the ERK MAP kinase cascade. Robinson JD and Pitcher JA, Cell Signal. 2013 Dec;25(12):2831-9. doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2013.08.031. Epub 2013 Sep 7.
64. Expression of a beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 inhibitor prevents the development of myocardial failure in gene-targeted mice. Rockman HA, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1998 Jun 9;95(12):7000-5.
65. IL-8 inhibits cAMP-stimulated alveolar epithelial fluid transport via a GRK2/PI3K-dependent mechanism. Roux J, etal., FASEB J. 2013 Mar;27(3):1095-106. doi: 10.1096/fj.12-219295. Epub 2012 Dec 6.
66. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 promotes cardiac hypertrophy. Schlegel P, etal., PLoS One. 2017 Jul 31;12(7):e0182110. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182110. eCollection 2017.
67. Decline in caveolin-1 expression and scaffolding of G protein receptor kinase-2 with age in Fischer 344 aortic vascular smooth muscle. Schutzer WE, etal., Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005 May;288(5):H2457-64. Epub 2004 Dec 30.
68. Angiotensin II-stimulated signaling through G proteins and beta-arrestin. Shenoy SK and Lefkowitz RJ, Sci STKE. 2005 Nov 22;2005(311):cm14.
69. Integrating GRK2 and NFkappaB in the Pathophysiology of Cardiac Hypertrophy. Sorriento D, etal., J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2015 Nov;8(8):493-502. doi: 10.1007/s12265-015-9646-0. Epub 2015 Jul 30.
70. Anabolic effects of a G protein-coupled receptor kinase inhibitor expressed in osteoblasts. Spurney RF, etal., J Clin Invest 2002 May;109(10):1361-71.
71. Granulocyte chemotaxis and disease expression are differentially regulated by GRK subtype in an acute inflammatory arthritis model (K/BxN). Tarrant TK, etal., Clin Immunol. 2008 Oct;129(1):115-22. Epub 2008 Jul 26.
72. Tentative Sequence Identification Numbers Tentative Sequence Data IDs. TIGR Gene Index, Rat Data
73. Regulation of cellular oxidative stress and apoptosis by G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2; The role of NADPH oxidase 4. Theccanat T, etal., Cell Signal. 2016 Mar;28(3):190-203. doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2015.11.013. Epub 2015 Nov 27.
74. Gene expression analysis of TREM1 and GRK2 in polymorphonuclear leukocytes as the surrogate biomarkers of acute bacterial infections. Ubagai T, etal., Int J Med Sci. 2014 Jan 10;11(2):215-21. doi: 10.7150/ijms.7231. eCollection 2014.
75. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 mediates endothelin-1-induced insulin resistance via the inhibition of both Galphaq/11 and insulin receptor substrate-1 pathways in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Usui I, etal., Mol Endocrinol. 2005 Nov;19(11):2760-8. Epub 2005 Jun 30.
76. Renoprotective effects of berberine and its possible molecular mechanisms in combination of high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Wang FL, etal., Mol Biol Rep. 2013 Mar;40(3):2405-18. doi: 10.1007/s11033-012-2321-5. Epub 2012 Nov 30.
77. Paroxetine alleviates T lymphocyte activation and infiltration to joints of collagen-induced arthritis. Wang Q, etal., Sci Rep. 2017 Mar 28;7:45364. doi: 10.1038/srep45364.
78. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 inhibition improves erectile function through amelioration of endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Wans ZH, etal., Asian J Androl. 2018 Sep 14. pii: 241306.
79. The regulation of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor desensitization by synaptic activity in cultured hippocampal neurons. Willets JM, etal., J Neurochem. 2007 Dec;103(6):2268-80. Epub 2007 Oct 1.
80. The glial-neuronal GRK2 pathway participates in the development of trigeminal neuropathic pain in rats. Won KA, etal., J Pain. 2014 Mar;15(3):250-61. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2013.10.013. Epub 2013 Nov 8.
81. Cardiac Fibroblast GRK2 Deletion Enhances Contractility and Remodeling Following Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury. Woodall MC, etal., Circ Res. 2016 Oct 28;119(10):1116-1127. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.309538. Epub 2016 Sep 6.
82. Improvement of vascular insulin sensitivity by downregulation of GRK2 mediates exercise-induced alleviation of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Xing W, etal., Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2013 Oct 15;305(8):H1111-9. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00290.2013. Epub 2013 Aug 2.
83. GRK2 Mediates Arginine Vasopressin-Induced Interleukin-6 Production via Nuclear Factor-¿B Signaling Neonatal Rat Cardiac Fibroblast. Xu F, etal., Mol Pharmacol. 2017 Sep;92(3):278-284. doi: 10.1124/mol.116.107698. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
84. Myocyte redistribution of GRK2 and GRK5 in hypertensive, heart-failure-prone rats. Yi XP, etal., Hypertension 2002 Jun;39(6):1058-63.
85. A Non-Canonical Function of Gbeta as a Subunit of E3 Ligase in Targeting GRK2 Ubiquitylation. Zha Z, etal., Mol Cell. 2015 Jun 4;58(5):794-803. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2015.04.017. Epub 2015 May 14.
86. Vasopressin V1Areceptor mediates cell proliferation through GRK2-EGFR-ERK1/2pathway in A7r5 cells. Zhang L, etal., Eur J Pharmacol. 2016 Dec 5;792:15-25. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.10.023. Epub 2016 Oct 20.
87. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, the major green tea catechin, regulates the desensitization of ß1 adrenoceptor via GRK2 in experimental heart failure. Zhang Q, etal., Inflammopharmacology. 2017 Dec 16. pii: 10.1007/s10787-017-0429-x. doi: 10.1007/s10787-017-0429-x.
88. Inhibition of ß-ARK1 Ameliorates Morphine-induced Tolerance and Hyperalgesia Via Modulating the Activity of Spinal NMDA Receptors. Zhang X, etal., Mol Neurobiol. 2017 Oct 3. pii: 10.1007/s12035-017-0780-3. doi: 10.1007/s12035-017-0780-3.
89. 2K1C-activated Angiotensin II (Ang II) exacerbates vascular damage in a rat model of arthritis through the ATR/ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Zhang Y, etal., Inflamm Res. 2017 Oct;66(10):881-890. doi: 10.1007/s00011-017-1069-8. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
90. Immune Tolerance Effect in Mesenteric Lymph Node Lymphocytes of Geniposide on Adjuvant Arthritis Rats. Zhang ZR, etal., Phytother Res. 2017 Aug;31(8):1249-1256. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5847. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
91. Arginine vasopressin enhances cell survival via a G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2/ß-arrestin1/extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2-dependent pathway in H9c2 cells. Zhu W, etal., Mol Pharmacol. 2013 Aug;84(2):227-35. doi: 10.1124/mol.113.086322. Epub 2013 May 20.
92. Dysregulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptor and associated signaling networks in brains of cocaine addicts and cocaine-treated rodents. Álvaro-Bartolomé M and García-Sevilla JA, Neuroscience. 2013 Sep 5;247:294-308. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2013.05.035. Epub 2013 May 29.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:1436718   PMID:1869533   PMID:7761854   PMID:8917529   PMID:10338466   PMID:14654844   PMID:14712229   PMID:15017017   PMID:15051637   PMID:15218143   PMID:15743771   PMID:16195412  
PMID:16221676   PMID:16368719   PMID:16500613   PMID:16757732   PMID:16963227   PMID:17322894   PMID:17437535   PMID:17544362   PMID:17573483   PMID:17986524   PMID:19306925   PMID:19385060  
PMID:19620130   PMID:19748906   PMID:19946888   PMID:20074556   PMID:20147541   PMID:20304818   PMID:20705669   PMID:20883789   PMID:21464134   PMID:21951806   PMID:22610096   PMID:22940879  
PMID:23029581   PMID:23139825   PMID:23599626   PMID:25804000   PMID:27992454   PMID:30915659   PMID:31594751   PMID:33434531   PMID:34101933   PMID:37012864   PMID:37690571  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr81211,010,259 - 211,031,013 (-)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.21201,580,823 - 201,601,580 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1201,581,480 - 201,601,582 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx1209,932,926 - 209,953,677 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.01217,026,270 - 217,047,026 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.01209,717,288 - 209,738,044 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.01219,536,220 - 219,544,329 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1219,536,220 - 219,544,328 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.01226,406,333 - 226,414,442 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41206,873,002 - 206,892,868 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11207,026,454 - 207,034,564 (-)NCBI
Celera1199,125,797 - 199,145,728 (-)NCBICelera
RH 3.4 Map11560.2RGD
Cytogenetic Map1q43NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh381167,266,473 - 67,286,556 (+)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl1167,266,473 - 67,286,556 (+)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh371167,033,944 - 67,054,027 (+)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 361166,790,481 - 66,810,605 (+)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 341166,790,668 - 66,810,945NCBI
Celera1164,377,313 - 64,386,599 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map11q13.2NCBI
HuRef1163,362,803 - 63,382,690 (+)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_11166,912,110 - 66,937,037 (+)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.01167,260,429 - 67,280,532 (+)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm39194,336,029 - 4,356,356 (-)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl194,336,029 - 4,356,250 (-)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm38194,285,999 - 4,306,222 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl194,286,001 - 4,306,222 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv37194,286,001 - 4,305,955 (-)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv36194,286,001 - 4,305,955 (-)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera194,157,228 - 4,177,197 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map19ANCBI
cM Map193.98NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_00495542218,170,616 - 18,192,412 (-)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_00495542218,173,438 - 18,192,357 (-)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan1-v2968,493,145 - 68,513,349 (+)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1-v2
NHGRI_mPanPan11169,535,713 - 69,555,914 (+)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v01162,624,647 - 62,644,846 (+)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.11165,939,169 - 65,959,066 (+)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl1165,939,164 - 65,959,066 (+)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.11850,148,566 - 50,167,422 (-)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl1850,148,598 - 50,167,428 (-)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha1848,758,688 - 48,777,641 (-)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.01851,097,619 - 51,116,589 (-)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl1851,097,625 - 51,116,667 (-)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.11850,283,520 - 50,302,482 (-)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.01849,858,001 - 49,876,975 (-)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.01850,652,610 - 50,671,586 (-)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_0244049475,994,712 - 6,013,796 (-)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_0049365992,437,032 - 2,456,147 (-)EnsemblSpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0 Ensembl
SpeTri2.0NW_0049365992,437,061 - 2,456,141 (-)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl25,209,439 - 5,227,758 (-)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.125,209,435 - 5,227,543 (-)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.223,992,505 - 4,000,952 (-)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.116,975,202 - 6,995,369 (-)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl16,975,002 - 6,995,259 (-)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_023666038104,263,440 - 104,283,759 (-)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_00462476719,210,965 - 19,231,082 (-)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_00462476719,212,218 - 19,231,218 (-)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in Grk2
45 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:231
Count of miRNA genes:137
Interacting mature miRNAs:164
Prediction methods:Microtar, Miranda, Rnahybrid, Targetscan
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
737828Hcas3Hepatocarcinoma susceptibility QTL 34.9liver integrity trait (VT:0010547)liver tumorous lesion volume to total liver volume ratio (CMO:0001082)1144267353222987745Rat
1298084Thym4Thymus enlargement QTL 410.68thymus mass (VT:0004954)thymus weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000612)1197814409242814409Rat
631658Cm7Cardiac mass QTL 75.320.0001aorta mass (VT:0002845)aorta weight (CMO:0000076)1196248093241248093Rat
737977Bp160Blood pressure QTL 1600.001arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)1181133855226133855Rat
6903303Scl34Serum cholesterol QTL 342.50.0033blood cholesterol amount (VT:0000180)plasma total cholesterol level (CMO:0000585)1180359209218108781Rat
731168Bp154Blood pressure QTL 1543.4arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)194642644214537671Rat
8655655Arrd2Age-related retinal degeneration QTL 27.79retinal layer morphology trait (VT:0003727)percentage of study population developing retinopathy during a period of time (CMO:0002453)1183970203243914901Rat
7794788Mcs32Mammary carcinoma susceptibility QTL 322.61mammary gland integrity trait (VT:0010552)mammary tumor incidence/prevalence measurement (CMO:0000946)1115540693238914717Rat
738032Hcas5Hepatocarcinoma susceptibility QTL 53.12liver integrity trait (VT:0010547)liver tumorous lesion number (CMO:0001068)1176426412257976495Rat
631838Niddm36Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 360.01insulin secretion trait (VT:0003564)calculated pancreatic islet insulin release measurement (CMO:0001217)1184550676229550676Rat
634312Bp143Blood pressure QTL 14330.0002arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)1182623426219932796Rat
634321Hc1Hypercalciuria QTL 12.91urine calcium amount (VT:0002985)urine calcium excretion rate (CMO:0000763)1178810256240830002Rat
634338Hcar4Hepatocarcinoma resistance QTL 44.6liver integrity trait (VT:0010547)liver tumorous lesion number to liver area ratio (CMO:0001210)1193422268214537671Rat
7771612Cm80Cardiac mass QTL 808.4heart left ventricle mass (VT:0007031)heart left ventricle weight (CMO:0000776)1149448574221264292Rat
7421630Bp362Blood pressure QTL 3620.001arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)1118608292241799120Rat
8552891Epfw5Epididymal fat weight QTL 54.4epididymal fat pad mass (VT:0010421)epididymal fat pad weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000658)1193113876238113876Rat
7394701Uae46Urinary albumin excretion QTL 463.60.0056urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin excretion rate (CMO:0000757)1201554356246554356Rat
1300145Rf7Renal function QTL 72.96urine creatinine amount (VT:0010540)urine creatinine level (CMO:0000125)1185145134221264292Rat
8655855Arrd3Age-related retinal degeneration QTL 33.07lens clarity trait (VT:0001304)cataract incidence/prevalence measurement (CMO:0001585)1183970203243914901Rat
10059590Kidm44Kidney mass QTL 443.420.025kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000340)1191033875236033875Rat
10059600Bp378Blood pressure QTL 3783.080.05arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)1176869060221869060Rat
1331790Bp201Blood pressure QTL 2013.127arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)1198211513225126682Rat
1354580Scort1Serum corticosterone level QTL 13.4blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)blood corticosterone level (CMO:0001172)1156677124256448636Rat
1302787Stl25Serum triglyceride level QTL 252.70.0073blood triglyceride amount (VT:0002644)plasma triglyceride level (CMO:0000548)1180359209210702199Rat
1354606Bp246Blood pressure QTL 2463.6arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)pulse pressure (CMO:0000292)1102813953218753816Rat
1354624Cm35Cardiac mass QTL355.7heart left ventricle mass (VT:0007031)calculated heart weight (CMO:0000073)1177227632256448636Rat
1354646Kidm18Kidney mass QTL 185.7kidney mass (VT:0002707)calculated kidney weight (CMO:0000160)1151162512256448636Rat
1354652Kidm20Kidney mass QTL 204.3kidney mass (VT:0002707)calculated kidney weight (CMO:0000160)1177227632256448636Rat
1354653Despr9Despair related QTL 90.00019locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)amount of experiment time spent in a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000958)1167909849212909849Rat
1359018Hrtrt20Heart rate QTL 203.08heart pumping trait (VT:2000009)heart rate (CMO:0000002)1185356336202902618Rat
1549837Hcar15Hepatocarcinoma resistance QTL 150.05liver integrity trait (VT:0010547)liver tumorous lesion number (CMO:0001068)1153136852260522016Rat
1358191Ept10Estrogen-induced pituitary tumorigenesis QTL 103.8pituitary gland mass (VT:0010496)pituitary gland wet weight (CMO:0000853)1192825253243914732Rat
1358886Bp260Blood pressure QTL 2603.67arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)1151162766225824951Rat
1358898Bp255Blood pressure QTL 2553.6arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)1191019702246062233Rat
1549830Bss1Bone structure and strength QTL 14.8femur strength trait (VT:0010010)femur ultimate force (CMO:0001675)1172609619217609619Rat
1358292Cm37Cardiac mass QTL 376.20.00000081heart mass (VT:0007028)heart weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000074)1196248093241248093Rat
1598853Memor3Memory QTL 34.5exploratory behavior trait (VT:0010471)total horizontal distance resulting from voluntary locomotion in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0001443)1143506580212458660Rat
1578759Uae30Urinary albumin excretion QTL 303.30.003urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin excretion rate (CMO:0000757)1150700247252085048Rat
1578778Pur4Proteinuria QTL 43.30.003urine total protein amount (VT:0000032)urine total protein excretion rate (CMO:0000756)1150700247252085048Rat
61347Bp197Blood pressure QTL 1974.2arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)blood pressure measurement (CMO:0000003)1158633083203633083Rat
2292220Bp306Blood pressure QTL 3063.470.00087arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)1164310393243914901Rat
2292222Bp307Blood pressure QTL 3073.060.0014arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)1164310393213533942Rat
2293083Iddm25Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 254.18blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)1181829673224569684Rat
631214Bw61Body weight QTL613.40.0001intramuscular adipose amount (VT:0010044)intramuscular fat area (CMO:0001162)1173108781218108781Rat
724531Uae5Urinary albumin excretion QTL 54urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin level (CMO:0000130)1150700142252085212Rat
724562Rends1Renal damage susceptibility QTL 10.05kidney glomerulus integrity trait (VT:0010546)index of glomerular damage (CMO:0001135)1169537671214537671Rat
2312420Pur17Proteinuria QTL 177.10.0001urine protein amount (VT:0005160)urine total protein excretion rate (CMO:0000756)1156677124218753816Rat
2314011Gluco56Glucose level QTL 56blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level area under curve (AUC) (CMO:0000350)1199773958202166723Rat
1354661Bw33Body weight QTL 335.2body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)1151162512256448636Rat
1600396Niddm68Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 684.970.0003blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level area under curve (AUC) (CMO:0000350)1195804352257091168Rat
2293677Bss41Bone structure and strength QTL 419.380.0001lumbar vertebra size trait (VT:0010518)lumbar vertebra cross-sectional area (CMO:0001689)1171629477216629477Rat
1641926Teswt2Testicular weight QTL 22.82testis mass (VT:1000644)both testes wet weight (CMO:0000175)1197697768238755659Rat
1578763Kidm29Kidney mass QTL 293.30.0001kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight (CMO:0000085)1179567751260522016Rat
1600388Niddm67Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 675.840.000004blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level area under curve (AUC) (CMO:0000350)1195804352257091168Rat
2293654Bss30Bone structure and strength QTL 3032.650.0001femur strength trait (VT:0010010)femur midshaft polar moment of inertia (CMO:0001669)1171629477216629477Rat
1354610Bw34Body weight QTL 344.1body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)1151162512256448636Rat
2300175Bmd40Bone mineral density QTL 4015.40.0001femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)bone mineral density (CMO:0001226)1201554356246554356Rat
2302378Insul11Insulin level QTL 113.25blood insulin amount (VT:0001560)serum insulin level (CMO:0000358)1144267353251128347Rat
1358294Bw37Body weight QTL 3750.000011body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)1171310381216310381Rat
1558658Bw59Body weight QTL 593.50.0003body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)1178784622223784622Rat
61341Bp26Blood pressure QTL 26arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)1169537671214537671Rat
61376Bp42Blood pressure QTL 4223.4arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)1197814409242814409Rat
2293674Bss39Bone structure and strength QTL 397.10.0001femur strength trait (VT:0010010)femur total energy absorbed before break (CMO:0001677)1201554356246554356Rat
724559Pancm1Pancreatic morphology QTL 17.1islet of Langerhans morphology trait (VT:0005215)pancreatic islet damage composite score (CMO:0001156)1181759564214537555Rat
1578780Cm52Cardiac mass QTL 523.30.0001heart mass (VT:0007028)heart wet weight (CMO:0000069)181591954219808434Rat
2300187Bmd41Bone mineral density QTL 418.90.0001femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001553)1171629477216629477Rat
1600380Niddm70Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 703.10.0008blood insulin amount (VT:0001560)plasma insulin level (CMO:0000342)1176550523221550523Rat
634313Niddm43Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 43blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)1199050459259647894Rat
2293693Bss22Bone structure and strength QTL 2233.520.0001femur morphology trait (VT:0000559)femur cross-sectional area (CMO:0001661)1171629477216629477Rat
2302375Bw83Body weight QTL 834.870.0002body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)1197697768242697768Rat
1357335Bw39Body weight QTL 393.3body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)1197814409242814409Rat
2292218Kidm35Kidney mass QTL 35kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000340)1199368955224569684Rat
2300174Bmd42Bone mineral density QTL 428.40.0001lumbar vertebra mineral mass (VT:0010511)bone mineral density (CMO:0001226)1171629477216629477Rat
1600395Niddm69Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 694.140.0002blood insulin amount (VT:0001560)plasma insulin level (CMO:0000342)1195804352257091168Rat
1600374Mcs17Mammary carcinoma susceptibility QTL 173mammary gland integrity trait (VT:0010552)mammary tumor number (CMO:0000343)1197670404242670404Rat
2293694Bss38Bone structure and strength QTL 387.050.0001femur strength trait (VT:0010010)femur stiffness (CMO:0001674)1201554356246554356Rat
2312564Glom18Glomerulus QTL 182.40.003kidney glomerulus morphology trait (VT:0005325)index of glomerular damage (CMO:0001135)1185356336231689108Rat
2300161Bmd43Bone mineral density QTL 438.40.0001femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001553)1171629477216629477Rat
2293689Bss47Bone structure and strength QTL 477.250.0001lumbar vertebra size trait (VT:0010518)lumbar vertebra trabecular cross-sectional area (CMO:0001692)1171629477216629477Rat
70163Bw20Body weight QTL 205.1body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)1174133260219133260Rat
619613Bp77Blood pressure QTL 770.01arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)1164747424209747424Rat
619613Bp77Blood pressure QTL 770.01arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)diastolic blood pressure (CMO:0000005)1164747424209747424Rat
2293655Bss36Bone structure and strength QTL 3610.660.0001femur strength trait (VT:0010010)femur ultimate force (CMO:0001675)1201554356246554356Rat
1582206Kidm33Kidney mass QTL 336.9kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000340)1188377360224054420Rat
2293673Bss27Bone structure and strength QTL 2718.630.0001femur morphology trait (VT:0000559)femur midshaft cortical cross-sectional area (CMO:0001663)1171629477216629477Rat

Markers in Region
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21201,581,925 - 201,582,223 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01219,536,666 - 219,536,963NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01226,406,779 - 226,407,076UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41206,873,448 - 206,873,745UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera1199,126,243 - 199,126,540UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map1q42UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21201,581,490 - 201,581,666 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01219,536,231 - 219,536,406NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01226,406,344 - 226,406,519UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41206,873,013 - 206,873,188UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera1199,125,808 - 199,125,983UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map11560.2UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map1q42UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21201,581,049 - 201,582,234 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01219,535,790 - 219,536,974NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01226,405,903 - 226,407,087UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41206,872,572 - 206,873,756UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera1199,125,367 - 199,126,551UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map1q42UniSTS

Related Rat Strains
The following Strains have been annotated to Grk2


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
Medium 3 43 57 41 19 41 8 11 74 35 34 11 8
Low 7
Below cutoff


RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000025847   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000025847
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1201,581,480 - 201,601,582 (-)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1219,536,220 - 219,544,328 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000100617   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000081551
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1201,581,480 - 201,589,920 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000100730   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000094741
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1201,581,480 - 201,589,920 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_012776   ⟹   NP_036908
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr81211,010,259 - 211,031,013 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.21201,580,823 - 201,601,580 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.01219,536,220 - 219,544,329 (-)NCBI
Rnor_5.01226,406,333 - 226,414,442 (-)NCBI
RGSC_v3.41206,873,002 - 206,892,868 (-)RGD
Celera1199,125,797 - 199,145,728 (-)RGD
Protein Sequences
Protein RefSeqs NP_036908 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
GenBank Protein AAA40802 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
Ensembl Protein ENSRNOP00000025847.6
GenBank Protein P26817 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_036908   ⟸   NM_012776
- UniProtKB: P26817 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000025847   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000025847
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000094741   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000100730
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000081551   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000100617
Protein Domains
AGC-kinase C-terminal   PH   Protein kinase   RGS

Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P26817-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P26817 1-689 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:2062 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-56757 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000018985 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000025847.8 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000100617.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000100730.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Gene3D-CATH UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Transferase(Phosphotransferase) domain 1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro AGC-kinase_C UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  GPCR_kinase UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Kinase-like_dom_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PH-like_dom_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PH_domain UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Prot_kinase_dom UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Protein_kinase_ATP_BS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  RGS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  RGS_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  RGS_subdomain_2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Ser/Thr_kinase_AS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:25238 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Pfam PF00169 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Pkinase UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  RGS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Grk2 PhenoGen
  PH_DOMAIN UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  RGS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000018985 RatGTEx
SMART RGS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  S_TK_X UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  S_TKc UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SM00233 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Superfamily-SCOP PH domain-like UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SSF48097 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SSF56112 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
TIGR TC229097
  ARBK1_RAT UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2016-05-20 Grk2  G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2  Adrbk1  adrenergic, beta, receptor kinase 1  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2008-09-25 Adrbk1  adrenergic, beta, receptor kinase 1  Adrbk1  adrenergic receptor kinase, beta 1  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2001-06-29 Adrbk1  G-protein-linked receptor kinase (beta adrenergic receptor kinase 1)      Name withdrawn 67952 WITHDRAWN
2001-06-29 Adrbk1  adrenergic receptor kinase, beta 1      Name updated to reflect Human and Mouse nomenclature 67952 APPROVED

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_cellular_localization specifically accumulated in the intercalated disks of myocytes 70720
gene_disease associated with the development of cardiac hypertrophy 70720
gene_expression expressed in brain 632163
gene_expression expressed in cardiac myocytes 70720
gene_function catalyzes the phosphorylation of agonist-bound beta-adrenergic receptors 632163
gene_function kinase 70720
gene_physical_interaction co-localized with sarcomeric alpha-actinin and G protein 70720
gene_process involved in G protein-coupled receptor phosphorylation and desensitization 70720
gene_process plays a role in regulating GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors) in bone; mediates bone formation 625698
gene_process regulates G-protein signaling 70720
gene_process mediates a reduction in adenylate cyclase activity 632163
gene_process may play a role in desensitization of synaptic receptors 632163
gene_product member of the serine/ threonine kinase family 70720
gene_regulation protein expression remained unchanged during cardiac hypertrophy in 6 month-old animals 70720